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nutrition

the science of foods and the substances the contain

food

derived from plant or animal sources. provides energy and nutrients. all humans have a right to an adequate supply of nutritious food.

nutrients

chemical substances obtained from foods and used by the body for growth, maintenence, and repair of tissue, energy, and desease pervention

food security

access at all times to a sufficient supple of safe, nutritious foods

food insecurity

limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods

food terrorism

food is a potential weapon of bioterrorism. toxic substances could be introduced into he food/water supply

adequacy

sufficient essential nutrients, fiber, and energy to maintain health

balance

providing foods in the right proportions to each other and body's needs

calorie control

management of energy intake

nutrient density

nutrients of food provides relative to the energy it provides. more nutients & fewer kcals= higher nutrient density

moderation

enough but not too much of a substance

variety

consuming many foods within/among food groups

nutrient dense food

foods with higher quantitiy of nutrients(nutrient density) relative to the energy(kcals) provided

empty calorie (kcal) foods

popular term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals

female healthy weight

100 ponds for first 5 feet, add 5 pounds to each additional inch

males healthy weight

106 pounds for the first 5 feet, add 6 pounds for each additional inch

Build a healthy base

let the pyramid guide food choices, choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains, choose a variety of fruits/ vegetables daily, keep foods safe to eat

choose sensibly

choose a diet low in saturated fat, an cholesterol and moderate in total fat, beverages/ food to mpderatre intake of sugars, choose and prpare foods with less salt, drink alcohol in moderation

mypyramid

a food guidance system that allows for and individualized approach to improving diet and lifestyle. the wedges represent recommended proportions of foods from each group to be consumed daily

grains

ear at least 3 oz. of whole grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice or pastas every day

vegetables

eat more dark-green veggies like broccoli and spinach. eat more orange vegetables like carrots and sweet potatoes, and dry beans and peas

fruits

eat a variety, choose fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruit, try not to drink fruit juces alot

milk

low-fat or fat-free when you choose milk, yogurt, and other milk products

meat and beans

choose low fat or lean meat and poultry, bake it, broil it, or grill it, vary your protein routein

energy recommendations

carbs: 58%
fat: <30%
protein: 12%

monosaccharides

simple sugar, glucose, fuctose, galactose

disaccarides

simple sugar, sucrose, lactose, maltose

polysaccarides

complex carb, starch and fiber

dietary fiber

indigestible carbohydrates

saturated fatty acid

fats that are animal in origin, and solid at room temperature

monosaturated

peanut oils/ butter, olive oil, canola oil

polysaturated

oils that are plants in origin and liquid at room temperature

agriculture

# 1 job in the US, meat,dairy, and egg industries are the biggest players in the ag economy

EAR (eatimated average requirement)

nutrient amount that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the people of a given age and gender group. 50% of people of an age/gender. not really used

RDA (recommended dietaryy allowance)

the average daily amount of nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy americans, living in america, and under the usual stress. 98% practically all healthy americans based on an average. most widely used

AI (adequate intake)

average intake of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion. rarely used

UL (tolerable Upper Level Intake level)

upper limit of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people

diet

the food and beverages a person eats, drinks, and/ or consumes

energy

the capacity to do work- food is chemical energy converted to mechanical, electrical or heat energy

six classes of nutrients

protein- 4kcal/g
carbs.- 4 kcal/g
lipids- 9kcal/g
vitamins-13 different
minerals-15 different
water-humans need 11-15 cups of water a day from foods and fluids

percent contribution

(part / whole) x 100

ingredients list

listed in descending order of predominance by weight

serving size

set by FDA/ Facilitates comparisons among foods

nutrition facts

total calories and calories from fat, total carbs, starch, sugar, and fiber, trans fat required on label

net carb

have to have a food with at least 5 g of fiber per serving. the subtract the number of carbs from fiber= net carbs

nutrient claims

must meet FDA defnitions, ex: low cholecterol, high fiber, sugar free

health claims

FDA's "A" list of health claims can be used on food labels, they provide and establish connection between a nutrient and a disease or health condition

organic food

crops/livestock living according to US department of agriculture standards

irradiated food

x-rays, gamma rays, electrom beams are used to kill insects, bacteria, molds or other microorganisms. retain no radioactive particles, cam become contaminated once the package is open

functional food

provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions. modify it to make it seem healthier ex: low fat foods

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