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DIFS, QTR4, Chem 2

carbohyrdrate

denoted by suffix- OSE

Monosaccharide

simplest carbohydrate; building blocks of carbs

monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, & galactose are examples of

monosaccharide hexose formula

C6H12O6

aldose

carbohydrate with a aldehyde group

ketose

carb witha ketone group

carbohydrate energy

4 calories per gram

glucose

examples are dextrose, grape sugar, blood sugar

Fructose

levulose, fruit sugar are examples of

galactose

carbohydrate associated with brain and nerve tissue

disaccharides

2 saccharide groups

disaccharide formula

C12H22011

sucrose

disaccharide; cane sugar, table sugar are examples of

sucrose

constituents- glucose & fructose; upon hydrolysis => glucose & fructose

maltose

disaccharide; malt sugar

maltose

consituents- glucose & glucose; upon hydrolysis=> 2 glucose

lactose

disaccharide; milk sugar

lactose

constituents- glucose& galactose; upon hydolysis=>glucose & galactose

polysaccharides

most complex of all carbohydrates; MANY saccharide groups

starch

a polysaccharide; found in plantssuch as tubers, & grains

starch

most important polysccharide to MAN; upon hydrolysis=>glucose molecules

glycolgen

found as a stored polysaccharide in the liver of man and other animals; how our bodies store sugars for later use

cellulose

polysaccharide; found in makeup of many plants; NOT digestable to humans; used as bulking agent

carbohydrates

hydrolyzation end products => monosaccharides

monosaccharide

canNOT be further hydrolized

oxidation of carbohydrates

animal METABOLISM of carbs

oxidation of carbohydrates

this is the chief source of body energy; end products =>co2 & h2o

oxidation of carbs/ metabolism

opposite of photosynthesis

photosynthesis

process by which plants convert co2, h2o, & solar energy into carbs and o2, while in the presence of the catalyst chlorophyll.

fermentation

1.the anaeobic breakdown of organic compounds (carbs) by microorganisms into simpler products, releasing co2. 2. the oxidative decomposition of complex substances (carbs) through the action of enzymes produced by microorganism

lipids/ fats

substances able to yield fatty acids when hydrolyzed

lipids/ fats

as a group sometimes called glycerides

esters

organic lipid or fat compunds are also called?

lipds/ fats elements

carbon, hydogren, oxygen & may contain nitorgen and phosphorus

lipids/ fats

is comprised of glycerol (glycerine) & fatty acids

lipids/ fats

tristearin & adapose (example of?)

fatty acids

stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid (examples of?)

lipids

these are insoluable in water, but are soluable in organic solvents such as ethers, benzene, chloroform, and some alcohols

lipids energy

9 calories per gram

lipids

may be stored, prevents dehydration of cells, used as insulation, and cushions body organs

lipids

oxidation of ______=> co2, h2o, energy

lipids

under normal hydrolysis of_________=> glycerol & fatty acids

saponification

the alkaline hydrolysis of a lipid; the natural process of body decomposition; alkaline substance usually used- NaOH (sodium hydroxide)

saponification

___________=> glycerine & soap

soap

the product formed when an alkali reacts with a fatty acid

adipocere or grave wax

product formed from the saponification of fatty acids in the dead human body by calcium containing compounds ( more like soap than wax)

waxes

lipids that are esters of fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols other than glycerol

compound lipids

a lipid which, when hydrolyzed, will yeild fatty acids, and alcohol and some other compound

proteins

fundamental constituents of all living matter; the building blocks of living things

proteins

the most complex of organic compounds; they have extremely large & complex structures

protein

this is important for new cell growth, synthesis of enzymes, synthesis of hormones, production of hemoglobin

protein

elements- carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen- may be present- sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, iron

proteins

_______ are made up of amino acids

amino acids

an organic acid containing nitrogen; the building blocks of proteins; have amphoteric properties

amino acid

glycine & alanine are examples of ?

amphoteric properties

possess the properties of an acid & a base; have characteristics of substances that ionize as both acids & bases in solutions; allows proteins to act as buffers in body metabolism when in solution

imbibition

ability to absorb water

coagulation

reaction of formaldehyde with proteins; the insoluable state of a protein produced by heating or contact with a chemical

formaldehyde

this forms a peptide bond to denature proteins; denaturing proteins is a toxic reaction

formadehyde

this causes the peptide linkage of proteins to coagulate and become firm

one to one basis

if decomposition has begun the amino acids will react with formaldehyde on what basis?

not reversible

decomposition of proteins is____________

hydrolysis of proteins

end product=> amino acid(s)

oxidation of proteins

end product=> CO2, H2O, nitrogenous wastes (such as urea & ammonium salts)

deamination

the process by which the amino group is removed from an amino acid as part of the catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids

deamination process

the amino group is converted by the liver into ammonium salts and urea which are highly soluable & may be excreted by the kidney in urine

putrifaction

decomposition of proteins

putrifaction

this yeilds=> ammonia containing compounds; putrecine cadaberine (ptomaines), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

enzymes

organic catalyst; are proteins by nature( all that applies to proteins also applies)

catalyst

alters the speed of a chemical reaction

substrate

the substance upon which an enzyme will act

specificity

each enzyme will only react upon only ONE given substrate

enzyme

is denoted by the suffixes "ase" or "in"

carbonhydrase

enzymes that act on carbohydrates

protease

enzymes that act on proteins

lipase

enzymes that act on lipids & fats

autolytic enzymes

self digesting enzyme

autolysis

self digestion being apart of decomposition

variable Ph

the optimum Ph range for enzyme activity

normal body temperature

temperature range for enzyme activity

50 Celcius or 122 F

high temperature which enzymes coagulate

influencing factors on enzymes

1 concentration of the enzyme 2 consentration of the substrate 3 nature & concentration of products 4 effects of light and other physical factors

metabolism

the result of both the destructive and constructive chemical reactions in a living cell or organism, by which food is transformed into living protoplasm, reserve materials are stored, and wastes are eliminated

catabolism & anabolism

2 parts to metabolism

catabolism

the conversion of complex substances into simpler compounds; destructive aspect of metabolism; example is digestion

anabolism

the process which build complex substances from simpler compounds; constructive aspect of metabolism; example is storing glycogen by the liver

digestion

it results in the breaking down of complex foods into simple soluable compounds, whose molecules are small enough to pass through mambrades and thus be absorbed by the cells of the body

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