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melismatic singing

when many notes or pitches are sung to just one syllable of text.

melismatic singing
polyphonic singing
syllabic singing

rhythm

the organization of time in music.

beat
harmony
rhythm

the ordinary of the mass

the kyrie, gloria, and credo are all parts of:

the ordinary of the mass
the choir
the proper of the mass

paris

the first polyphonic music was written in which european city?

bonn
paris
madrid
london

staff

the grid work of lines and spaces is notated on

tonic
clef
staff

palestrina

a composer who is considered the "savior of church music"

leoninus
dufay
palestrina

an octave

the interval formed by playing, for example, a "C" combined with another "C" eight notes above it is called

an octave
an overtone
a fundamental

beat

an even pulse that divides the passing of time into equal units

harmony
rhythm
beat

bass

the four voices of the choir include alto, tenor, soprano and

castrato
bass
falsetto

the protestant reformation

the council of trent was a meeting of bishops of the catholic church in response to what

castratos
the counter reformation
the protestant reformation

melody

a series of pitches arranged to form a cohesive musical line

beat
melody
staff

mode

whether a scale is major or minor is called its

modulation
mode
character

madrigal

a type of song that was a favorite of elizabeth england

madrigal
motet
mass

tonic

melodies are structured around a central pitch called the

key
mode
tonic

madrigal

a secular renaissance vocal composition that sets a vernacular poem for several voices. usually these are love poems. over 40,000 of them were published.

madrigal
troubadour
motet

machaut

a composer who worked at the cathedral in reims, france

hildegard
machaut
palestrina

pitch

the relative position of a sound high or low is called the

pitch
mode
clef

the bass clef

low voices and instruments usually have their music written on

the bass clef
the tenor clef
the soprano clef

the medieval period

this time period is considered the age of cathedrals

the renaissance period
the medieval period
the baroque period

hildegard

this composer was given to the church as a tithe as a child

josquin
machaut
hildegard

it causes our brain to release mood enhancing chemicals

music changes our mood because

we know the tune
it causes our brain to release mood enhancing chemicals
we associate it with something

regularly

musical sounds vibrate

slowly
quickly
regularly

consonance

notes that, when combined, are generally pleasing to the ear, form that is called

resolution
progression
consonance

1750-1820

the classical musical style period has which dates

1750-1820
1820-1900
1945 to present

homophonic

a musical texture consisting of a single melody accompanied by chords is considered

monophonic
polyphonic
homophonic

1475-1600

the renaissance musical style period has which dates

1600-1750
1880-1920
1475-1600

machaut

a medieval composer who was first to use the four standard voices of the chorus

palestrina
machaut
josquin

gregorian chant

this type of music was composed for 15 centuries

motets
madrigals
gregorian chant

improvisation

classical music does NOT rely largely on

improvisation
preset notation
acoustic instruments

F

the seven pitches of the octave inclue C,D,E,G,A,B and

K
F
O

the renaissance

palestrina is a composer from which musical style period

the classical period
the renaissance
the middle ages

deprez

a composer who commanded high prices for his motets

machaut
palestrina
perotinus
deprez

unaccompanied by an instrument

to sing a cappella means to sing

unaccompanied by an instrument
with others
from the head

a motet

a renaissance composition for choir that is a setting of a latin text on a sacred subject intended to be sung either in a church or in a private chapel

a madrigal
a mass
a motet

melody

a solid tonal center, forward motion, a goal or climax and ultimately, a feeling of repose are also aspects of a good

tonic
melody
composer

moves to another key

modulation happens when the music

changes mode
moves to another key
comes to the end of a melody

many voices

polyphony means

one voice alone
many voices
a choir

troubadour

poet musicians who flourished in the european courts during the middle ages

castratos
troubadour
falsettos

triple

a meter that is divided up into three beats per meter is called

quadruple
duple
triple

dense polyphony

which of the following is not an attribute of the classical style

form
dense polyphony
homophonic texture

haydn

the string quartet was invented by

mozart
bach
haydn

haydn

composer who was trained as a choirboy in vienna

mozart
bach
haydn

vivaldi

composer who worked in an orphanage in venice teaching young girls

bach
vivaldi
mozart

cadenza

long unaccompanied solo that occurs typically near the end of a concerto movement

coda
cadenza
recapitulation

mozart's a little night music

one of the following was actually intended more as background entertainment for aristocratic gatherings

mozart's a little night music
beethovens late string quartets
chopins etudes

walking bass

a term used to describe a bass line that moves down at a stead, moderate pace

basso continuo
walking bass
figured bass

double exposition

a compositional device used in concertos of the classical period where the first orchestra plays all of the themes and then the soloist enters

sonata allegro
double exposition
ritornello

oboe

the woodwind family consists of the flute, clarinet, bassoon and

french horn
oboe
viola

monteverdi

the composer of the very first grand opera

handel
mozart
monteverdi

minuet

the third movement of a typical classical symphony or string quartet uses

theme and variations
minuet
rondo

corelli

this baroque figure established a technique for the violin

bach
vivaldi
corelli

baroque concerto

in what kind of composition does one find ritornello form

baroque concerto
baroque sonata
fugue

aria

baroque opera consists of basically two types of singing, recitative and

monody
vocal ensemble
aria

recitative

vocal line in an opera or oratorio that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech

recitative
cadenza
aria

mozart

composer who toured europe as a child, playing for the courts or kings and emperors

mozart
haydn
vivaldi

lutheran

the church music of JS bach is a product of the _________ religious tradition

calvinist
catholic
lutheran

crescendo

a term that means to gradually get louder

crescendo
diminuendo
sforzando

bach

baroque composer who spent much of his career as a church musician

josquin
handel
bach

4

how many movements does a classical period symphony have

3
2
4

sonata allegro

the piece you are listening to is a sonata. it is classical. what form do you expect the 1st movement to be in?

rondo
sonata allegro
theme and variations

3

a classical period sonata has how many movements

8
3
4

opera seria

opera that is grandiose and about gods and legends

comic opera
opera seria
opera buffa

vienna

during the classical period this city was used as an administrative center for most of europe

vienna
paris
rome

the church

major source of musical employment during the medieval, renaissance and baroque eras

the church
publishing companies
universities

the piano

the pianoforte is another name for which instrument

the harpsichord
the organ
the piano

haydn

which of the following composers was a servant of prince esterhazy

mozart
bach
haydn

pedal point

a sustained note in the bass of a piece of music is called a

pedal point
fugue
point of imitation

recapitulation

the part of sonata allegro form when all of the themes come back into the tonic key

exposition
development
recapitulation

development

the part of sonata allegro form where the composer gets to be really creative and plays around with the themes in many different ways

exposition
development
recapitulation

exposition

the first part of sonata allegro form where the themes are first introduced

exposition
development
recapitulation

tutti

________ is a term meaning "full orchestra" as in concerto grosso

tutti
cadenza
sinfonia

mozart

composer who died at age 35 of unknown causes

haydn
vivaldi
mozart

string quartet

a classical period piece written for the following instruments: 2 violins, viola and cello

string quartet
symphony
sonata

classical

this time period is also called the age of reason

classical
baroque
renaissance

contrast

repetition, variation and ________ are all used to create form in music

contrast
harmony
recapitulation

subject

which of the follow is NOT a term used to describe sonata allegro form

exposition
subject
recapitulation

to sound

the word sonata means

a touched thing
to sound
flight

bach

this composer was considered a virtuoso organist

mozart
bach
haydn

da ponte

the librettist who worked with mozart

da ponte
salieri
stradiveri

absolute music

music without extra musical or programmatic references

program music
absolute music
art music

idee fixe

berlioz represents the idea of the "beloved" by using

idee fixe
diminution
leitmotif

lawyer

robert schumann went to school to become a

musician
doctor
lawyer

piano

franz liszt was a famous virtuoso for which instrument

violin
guitar
piano

chopin

a composer famous for writing short pieces called "nocturnes" for the solo piano

chopin
liszt
c. schumann

3rd

in beethoven's 5th symphony he used a scherzo form for which movement

4th
3rd
1st

express four different characters

the singer in schubert's erlking has to use his voice to

express four different characters
imitate birds
to be heard in the back of the concert hall

a riff

a melodic fragment used to build melodies and themes, as in the first four notes of beethoven's 5th is called

a riff
a motive
a germ cell

paganini

which of the following was so good at playing the violin that people thought he was from the devil

liszt
chopin
paganini

liszt

this composer established the format for the modern day piano recital

liszt
chopin
verdi

wagner

widely regarded as germany's leading opera composer

schubert
wagner
brahms

a signature tune

a leitmotif is

a signature tune
rubato
double counterpoint

r. schumann

a romantic period composer who did a great deal to promote other composers of the time by publishing the "New Journal of Music"

brahms
r. schumann
berlioz

concert etude

a _______ is a virtuosic instrumental piece that also serves as a technique exercise

nocturne
lied
concert etude

beethoven

the composer who is considered to be the iconic image of the musician as an artist

liszt
mozart
beethoven

harriet smithson

the real life person that was the inspiration for symphonie fantastique

george sand
aurore dudevant
harriet smithson

art

the romantics considered life, and how they lived it, to be

drama
art
opera

c. schumann

a composer who stopped composing because she felt it was not right for a woman to compose

r. schumann
c. schumann
harriet smithson

r. schumann

this composer fell in love with his piano teacher's daughter

chopin
beethoven
r. schumann

chopin

composer referred to as the poet of the piano

beethoven
liszt
chopin

brahms

who is considered beethoven's symphonic successor

brahms
r. schumann
berlioz

program music

the concert overture, the symphonic poem, and program symphony are all examples of

piano pieces
program music
absolute music

five

symphonie fantastique by berlioz has how many movements

four
none
five

paganini

which of the following was not a famous piano virtuoso

liszt
chopin
paganini

vienna

in the romantic period, in which city would you have been able to attend a schubertiad

london
vienna
paris

romantic era

instrumental music's literary and programmatic associations began to be more important in the

baroque era
classical era
romantic era

they are connected

in beethoven's fifth symphony, what is unusual about the 3rd and 4th movement

nothing
they are connected
there is a haunting oboe solo

piano

the romantic period is characterized by the importance of which instrument

violin
organ
piano

night music

the word nocturne means

a special court dance
for solo piano
night music

coda

in beethoven's pathetique sonata he brings back the material from the slow intro in both the development and the

coda
exposition
recapitulation

bel canto opera

"la traviata" is an example of

a german music drama
lied
bel canto opera

brahms

a romantic period composer of absolute music

brahms
liszt
berlioz

carmen

the first realistic opera

la traviata
tristan and isolde
carmen

verdi

a composer who was rejected from the conservatory in milan due to being too old and not having good piano technique

verdi
schumann
brahms

total art work

gesamtkunstwerk means

total art work
music drama
signature tune

gregorian chant

the dies irae, used by berlioz in symphonie fantastique is an example of

an idee fixe
gregorian chant
chorales

beethoven

a classical period composer who went deaf

beethoven
berlioz
brahms

brahms

this composer owed his success to the promotional efforts of the schumanns

beethoven
brahms
mozart

beethoven

bridge composer between classical and romantic eras

haydn
mozart
beethoven

shostakovich

bartok's broken intermezzo, from his concerto for orchestra, is in part a parody of the musical style of the russian composer

shostakovich
mussorgsky
stravinsky

w.c. handy

blues composer who influenced gershwin's rhapsody in blue

bessie smith
w.c. handy
louis armstrong

louis armstrong

_____________ was jazz's first superstar

duke ellington
louis armstrong
benny goodman

expressionism

freud is said to have influenced this

expressionism
impressionism
romanticism

west side story

broadway musical that is an american urban adaptation of the romeo and juliet story

west side story
oklahoma
cats

debussy

the impressionist painter monet is often linked with the composer

bizet
debussy
copland

romantic era

nationalistic sentiments first began to be suggested in music of the european classical tradition during the ____________

baroque era
classical era
romantic era

william grant still

first african american composer to have a work performed by a major symphony orchestra

william grant still
duke ellington
nathaniel dett

new york

first american city to support regular opera performances

boston
new york
new orleans

new orleans

american city recognized as the birthplace of jazz

chicago
new orleans
kansas city

minimalism

a style of post-modern music that takes a very small musical unit and repeats it over and over again to form a composition

atonalism
serialism
minimalism

prokofiev

a composer who composed in the neo-classical style

prokofiev
ives
schoenberg

sprechstimme

a vocal technique that requires the vocalist to declaim the text more than just sing it

bel canto
atonality
sprechstimme

schoenberg

the composer who invented the 12 tone composition

ives
copland
schoenberg

dissonance

music of the 20th century is marked by the emancipation of _______

the scale
tonality
dissonance

dvorak

bohemian composer whose american experiences and the writings of henry wadsworth longfellow served as inspiration for one of his famous symphonies

dvorak
smetana
martinu

napoleon bonaparte

the orginal dedicatee of beethoven's symphony no. 3 "eroica"

archduke rudolf
napoleon bonaparte
goethe

impressionism

a movement that rose in france in opposition to the german romantic music.

impressionist art

monet, renoir, degas

painting focused on light brush strokes of color rather than clearly defined objects.

impressionist music

not focused on form, rhythm, melody or harmony but rather on washed of sound that create an "impression" of a scene or mood

claude debussy

the most famous impressionist composer. came from a small town outside of paris. neither of his parents were musical but debussy became a pianist and started study at the paris conservatory at age 10. in 1884 he won the famous prize de rome composition prize and went to rome to study and write. he was happy to return to paris.

used chromatic scale (all twelve pitches) and pentatonic scale (five pitches). also a "whole tone scale" - uses all whole steps, no half. similar to chromatic. it is neither major or minor. uses parallels.

symbolism

poetry style when the sound of the word and the associations it might produce is more important than its actual meaning. stephane mallerme is famous for this. (he and debussy come together in "prelude to the afternoon of a faun"

modernism in russia and eastern europe

russian revolution leads to establishment of the communist soviet union in 1922. led to cold war which dominated western foreign policy for years.

artists working under stalin had difficulty. wealth was taken away from the well to do, anything "elitist" was suspect, the govt thought all music should be easily understood and enjoyed by the public at large. they wanted patriotic music-- furthered the agenda of communism.

if you were a composer and your music was labeled "formalist", it was like a death sentence. the challenge was for the composers to be true to one's artistic vision but remain alive.

subversives

composers that were approved by stalin's rules. they were a list of composers who used atonal, 12 tone styles.

sergey prokofiev

son of a well to do farm administrator. known as the "bad boy" of the st. petersburg conservatory. fled the russian revolution in 1917 to return later to communist russia. wrote 7 symphonies, 6 operas, 6 ballets, 5 piano concertos, and 9 piano sonatas. most remembered for his lighter works, such as the "classical symphony". rome and and juliet dance of the knights was the tragic love story with a HAPPY ending!

his life ended unhappily. he had to work strictly controlled by stalin. his performances were banned and he had to publically renounce formalism. his wife was arrested for espionage and sent into exile for 20 years. he died within a few minutes after stalin but noone noticed. there weren't any floweres left to bring to his funeral.

dimitri shostakovich

a few years younger than prokofiev. born to a musical family. showed a great deal of talent at an early age and was an accomplished pianist by the age of 11. studied at the st. petersburg conservatory. first real success, 1925 symphony no. 1. gained him international acclaim at age 19. in 1934 he again received world-wide attention for his opera lady macbeth of the mtsenk district. stalin attended this opera and walked out 3/4 of the way through. his music was then denounced by the papers as chaos, not music.

throughout his career he fell in and out of favor. his international stature made if difficult for the govt to execute him. when he was in favor he won the stalin medal of service, and served as the face for the spirit of russian resistance in the war with hitler's germany. his music was also twice denounced formalistic. after these, he would hide his most progressive scores and turn to tuning down the modernist components in the works he presented.

bela bartok

his music is modern but tends to be distinctly different from the russians and the composers of the secon viennese school. even though he employed atonality, he used tuneful melodies as well as folk melodies in his rhythms. (folk music from his home, hungary) he was born there, and attended the academy of music in budapest. he studied composition and piano. he gained a reputation as a concert pianist as well as composer of modernist music. His music had already been banned. Bartok was very interested in musical research, specifically Eastern Europe folk music. He traveled around Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and North Africa using the new recording machine of Thomas Edison. His ear became saturated with the driving rhythms and odd-numbered meters of peasant dances, as well as the unusual scales that the folk melodies were based. He incorporated these things into his compositions.

He employs pentatonic scales, switches meter back and forth between an even 2/4 and an odd 5/8, used a Hungarian nationalist song and borrows from Shostakovich. After arriving in New York in 1940, Bartok tried to build a career in the states but had little success. He died of Leukemia in New York's West Side Hospital.

bartok concerto orchestra

was commissioned by the conductor of the Boston Symphony for 1,000 dollars in 1943. In this piece each instrument is spotlighted at different times as well as different combinations of instruments being used to display their unique tonal qualities. There are 5 movements. The fourth movement is titled Broken Intermezzo.

igor stravinsky

La Sacre Du Printemps (Rite of Spring) piece that incited a riot.. plot on page 359. 3 very important ballet scores. Finebird, Petrushka, Rite of Spring. Usec percussive use of the orchestra with an enlarged percussion section. Used irregular accents.

emancipation of dissonance

dissonance was now liberated from the requirement that it move to a consonance.

arnold schoenburg

Viennese man most radical school of the music modernism and the 2nd Viennese school. He evolves atonality into a 12 tone system, all 12 tones are used in a fixed pre-determined order. All pitches used in that order before are being used again. A row can be backward (retrograde) upside down (introversion) or backward upside down (retrograde introversion). This emphasizes the equality of all the pitches.

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