APUSH Unit 8

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Northern Democrat Party

they followed Douglas's Freeport Doctrine, which accepted the decision of the Supreme Court. They nominated Douglas for their presidential candidate.

Southern Democrat Party

Party members from the south refused to allow Congress or any territorial government to prevent citizens from settling in any territory with their "slave property

Constitutional Union Part

The group consisted primarily of former Whigs from the Upper South who did not share the same convictions as their southern brothers, and northern Whigs who had not defected to the Republican Party. The party nominated John Bell from Tennessee as their presidential candidate.

Crittenden Compromise

this document proposed by Senator Henry Crittenden prohibited slavery north of 36° 30' parallel and protected slavery in all territories south of the line. It held that states entering the Union whether they were north or south of 36° 30', could decide to prohibit or protect slavery on their own accord. Lincoln rejected this proposal.

James Buchanan

When Americans voted Lincoln president, this man officially became a lame-duck leader.

Jefferson Davis

The selected president of the new southern nation. The former member of the U.S. Senate from Mississippi attended West Point and offered the fledgling government a wealth of military and administrative experience

Fort Sumter

Gaining control of this was the key to Southern war strategy. Anderson refused to leave, Confederate forces lobbed the first artillery shells onto the fort. After several hours, Anderson reluctantly surrendered. Although many states had wavered on remaining in the Union or joining the new Confederacy, Lincoln's demand to enter war against South Carolina pushed four other states out and the Confederate States of America expanded to eleven states.

Robert E. Lee

Nearly one-third of United States officers on active duty resigned their posts this man tendered his resignation just two days after being offered the command of all Union forces.

Anaconda Plan

Lincoln intended to cut off all routes to the south, essentially placing a stranglehold on imports and exports. If the Union could stop weapons, food, and clothing from entering the southern states, and prevent cotton and tobacco sales, Lincoln rationalized that he could starve the Southerners into surrendering.

Copperheads

A group of Democrats opposed any effort to support the fighting. The group planned to get enough followers elected to win control of Congress and force peace negotiations. Although they were not considered disloyal to the Union, they did not generate much support from Northerners who had friends and family members in the military.

George McClellan

a well-liked and passionate leader, put in charge of the Army of the Potomac by Lincoln. able to drill the Union troops into battle-ready shape. McClellan worked on raising the morale of his troops and preparing them for war. but the general was overly cautious and believed that the Confederate army heavily outnumbered him. He expanded the training for the Yankee troops for several more months.

Monitor and Merrimack

These two ships participated in history's first fight between armored ships. The powerful ironclads battled to a standstill when the one of the ships began taking on water and returned to Norfolk.

Battle of Gettysburg

For three days, between July 1 and July 3, momentum shifted from the South to the North and back to the South because of this battle, the bloodiest battle of the civil war.

Siege of Vicksburg

The Confederacy used an area on the Mississippi to transport cattle and other supplies from the west to southern cities. After intense fighting, Grant seized this city on July 4, 1863. Less than a week later, he dealt the Confederates a significant blow with the capture of Port Hudson. Grant's victories coupled with the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg shifted the tide of momentum in the Union's favor.

Sherman's March

General William Tecumseh Sherman marched his troops through Georgia to the sea. In his wake he left Confederate cities and towns in ruins so Southerners would not have anything left to use against the Union troops

Appomattox Court House

On April 9, 1865, after 600,000 casualties, Lee and Grant met at this place to agree to the terms of surrender. Per Lincoln's orders, the Union's only requirement was to have the Confederate soldiers lay down their arms.

Ulysses S. Grant

he was a hard drinking West Point graduate who was commonly stationed at remote frontier posts. his first success in the Civil War happened in February, 1862, when he led the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donaldson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers

National Banking Act

In 1863, this act was authorized by Congress to stimulate the sale of government bonds and to establish a uniform currency. Banks that joined the National Banking System could issue reliable paper money and buy government bonds. The system functioned until 1913 when it was replaced by the Federal Reserve System.

Habeas corpus

one of the basic tenets of American's civil liberties. It allows the examination of the circumstances of a person's arrest and imprisonment to determine if that individual should be detained. The purpose is to prevent unjust or illegal imprisonment.

Ex Parte Merryman

This act was in open defiance of the Supreme Court and Chief Justice Roger B. Taney's ruling in the 1861 case of _______, which stated that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of Congress.

Confiscation act 1861

The first of these acts, approved on August 6, 1861, granted freedom for all slaves who had served in the Confederate military. It also allowed for Union seizure of all rebel property. This act was only enforced in areas where the Union Army had a presence. Lincoln resisted this act because he feared the effect it would have on the political climate.

Second Confiscation Act 1862

This act was more direct, declaring freedom for the slaves of civilian and military Confederate officials. Although a vital step toward complete emancipation, this act also was only enforced in areas with a Union military presence.

Emancipation Proclamation

did not immediately free any slaves since it could not be enforced in those states it targeted. Although the Proclamation foreshadowed the end of slavery, those expecting an immediate effect were sorely disappointed.

Thirteenth Amendment

"Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the U.S. or any place subject to their jurisdiction," Congress completely and finally abolished slavery. The Amendment was approved in December of 1865 with a two-thirds vote in Congress, and went in effect fully when three-fourths of the states ratified it.

John Wilkes Booth

Attending Ford's Theater in Washington on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, less than a week after General Lee's surrender, Lincoln was shot in the head by this man, a radical pro-Southern actor.

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's Vice President, _____, was never quite comfortable filling Lincoln's shoes. Nonetheless, he attempted to follow Lincoln's plan for abolition and urged the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.

Peace Democrats

party loyalists, and they withheld their support of Lincoln but did not take any radical action against him.

War Democrats

put patriotism above party loyalty and supported Lincoln, and the Republicans sought an alliance with them.

American Missionary Association

In response to the desire for literacy, black schools were established—some with black teachers and others with white teachers, primarily female missionaries from this association.

Freedman's Bureau

Congress developed this on March 8, 1865. This early social welfare program was dedicated to educating, training, and providing financial and moral support for former slaves.

40 Acres and a mule

was what was promised to the emancipated slaves, with the plan to settle them on land confiscated from the Confederates. However, corrupt officials usually kept the land for themselves and manipulated many former slaves into signing labor contracts that essentially placed them back in a slave-like environment.

Scalawags

Southerners who opposed secession and were accused of harming the South by helping the blacks and stealing from their state treasuries

Carpetbaggers

Northerners who were accused of putting all their worldly belongings into a carpetbag suitcase and coming to the south at war's end to gain personal profit and power.

Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction

Before the war had ended, Lincoln issued the this in 1863, his compassionate policy for dealing with the South. The Proclamation stated that all Southerners could be pardoned and reinstated as U.S. citizens if they took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution and the Union and pledged to abide by emancipation.

Radical Republicans

President Lincoln wanted to get southern state governments in operation before Congress met in December in order to avoid the persecution of the vindictive ____.

Wade

Davis Bill 1864- In July 1864, the Radical Republicans passed this bill in response to Lincoln's 10 percent plan. This bill required that more than 50 percent of white males take an "ironclad" oath of allegiance before the state could call a constitutional convention. The bill also required that the state constitutional conventions abolish slavery.

Black Codes

Mississippi passed the first of these laws designed to restrict the freedom of the emancipated blacks in November 1865. The South intended to preserve slavery as nearly as possible in order to guarantee a stable labor supply. the codes identified blacks as a separate class with fewer liberties and more restrictions than white citizens

Joint Committee on Reconstruction

determined that, by seceding, the southern states had forfeited "all civil and political rights under the Constitution." The Committee rejected President Johnson's Reconstruction plan, denied seating of southern legislators, and maintained that only Congress could determine if, when, and how Reconstruction would take place.

Civil Rights Bill 1866

This Bill granted American citizenship to blacks and denied the states the power to restrict their rights to hold property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Congress aimed to destroy the Black Codes and justified the legislation as implementing freedom under the Thirteenth Amendment

Fourteenth Amendment

It acknowledged state and federal citizenship for persons born or naturalized in the United States. It forbade any state to diminish the "privileges and immunities" of citizenship, which was the section that struck at the Black Codes. It prohibited any state to deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without "due process of law." It forbade any state to deny any person "the equal protection of the laws." It disqualified formerIt reduced the representation of a state in Congress and the Electoral College if it denied blacks voting rights. It guaranteed the federal debt, while rejecting all Confederate debts. Confederates from holding federal and state office.

Military Reconstruction Act 1867

became the final plan for Reconstruction and identified the new conditions under which the southern governments would be formed.

Fifteenth amendment

The amendment prohibited the states from denying anyone the right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." In 1870, the required number of states had ratified the amendment, and it became part of the Constitution.

Civil Rights Act

last congressional Reconstruction measure. It prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection, transportation, restaurants, and "inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement." It did not guarantee equality in schools, churches, and cemeteries.

Tenure of Office Act

prohibited the president from removing senate-approved officials without first gaining the consent of the Senate. The Senate's goal was to keep Johnson from firing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, who had been appointed by President Lincoln; unconstitutional and challenged it head-on by dismissing Stanton in early 1868

Union Leagues

organize into a network of political clubs, provide political education, and campaign for Republican candidates. Black women did not have the right to vote at the time, but they aided the political movement with rallies and meetings that supported the Republican candidates

Enforcement Acts 1870

Congress, outraged by the brutality of the vigilantes and the lack of local efforts to protect blacks and persecute their tormentors, struck back with three acts designed to stop the terrorism and protect black voters.

Whisky Ring

bribed tax collectors to rob the Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues. Grant was adamant that no guilty man involved in the scheme should escape prosecution, but when he discovered his private secretary was involved, he helped exonerate him

Liberal Republican Party

favored gold to redeem greenbacks, low tariffs, an end to military Reconstruction, and restoration of the rights of former Confederates. They were generally well educated and socially prominent, and most had initially supported Reconstruction

panic of 1873

Unbridled expansion of factories, railroads, and farms and contraction of the money supply through the withdrawal of greenbacks helped trigger this event. This was the longest and most severe depression the country had experienced, with over 15,000 businesses filing bankruptcy, widespread unemployment, and a slowdown in railroad and factory building

Resumption Act 1875

Congress then passed this act, which called for the gradual redemption of greenbacks for gold starting in 1879, making the value of paper money equal to that of gold.

Greenback Labor Party

elected fourteen congressmen in 1878. The Act brought the greenbacks up to their full face value and helped restore the government's credit. However, the contest over monetary policy persisted as one of the most divisive issues in American politics

Compromise of 1877

It gave the Democrats justification to desert Tilden, since it would allow them to regain political rule in the south. With the compromise, the Republicans had quietly given up their fight for racial equality and blacks' rights in the south. In 1877, Hayes withdrew the last federal troops from the south, and the bayonet-backed Republican governments collapsed, thereby ending Reconstruction

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