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Yes, I did combine Anna, Zoe, and Johnny's sets to create one big master set. Stop complaining and learn.

Ptolemaic System

the last astronomer, Ptolemy, who tried to support the thinking that the earth was in the center of the universe. aka: geocentric system

Copernican System

The thinking that the sun is at the center of the universe. aka: heliocentric

Celestial Sphere

A sphere around the earth, with stars and much more plastered onto it.

Celestial North/South

If you extend the earths northern axis up to the celestial north pole and down to the celestial south pole.

Celestial Equator

the projection of the earths equator onto the celestial sphere.

Plane of Ecliptic

planets are on the arch where the plane is and because they are on the same line, they can eclipse (go over each other)

Horizon

the line across the sky, where the land meets the sky.

Zenith

position directly above the observer. Objects pass through it during night and day.

Meridian

an arch drawn on the celestial sphere that goes through the southern celestial.

4.6 billion years

the age of the solar system

Solarwind

charged particles/radiation coming from the sun

Big Bang

the universe formed in an instant in an enormous explosion 13.7 billion years ago

Hubbles Law

The further away the object the faster it appears to be moving away from us.

Absolute Brightness

the brightness of a star if it were at a standard distance from the earth. aka: luminosity

Apparent Brightness

the brightness of a star as seen from earth.

H-R diagram

used to classify stars and to understand how stars change over time.

Main Sequence

most stars fit into the band on the H-R diagram.

Red Giants

Supergiants and giants, (cool but bright)

White dwarfs

the blue-white core of the star that is left behind after a star dies when it cools.

Nuclear Fusion

atoms are being forced together to fuse, creates lots of energy.

Nebula

stars are born inside because gravity pulls the gas and dust and creates nuclear fusion.

Cosmic Background Radiation

evidence of Big Bang. Light waves from the big bang explosion.

Constellations

Pattern of stars that keep the same shapes from night to night and year to year.

Parallax

the apparent change in position of an object when you look at it from different places.

Light-year

The distance that light travels in one year, 9.5 million kilometers.

Protostar

A contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star.

Globular Clusters

Large groupings of older stars.

Open clusters

Have a loose, disorganized appearance and containing no more than a few thousand stars.

galaxy

A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity.

Quasars

objects that are very bright and very far away that look like stars.

Milky Way

Our solar system located in a spiral galaxy.

13.7 billion years

age of the universe

atomic evolution

the development of heavier and more complex atoms created by generations of stars undergoing thermonuclear fusion reactions

chemical evolution

the process in which the chemical make up of the earth has changed over time

oparin's hypothesis

he hypothesized that the early earth atmosphere was rich in water vapor, hydrogen gas, methane, and ammonia. in these conditions organic molecules were formed and collected in the earth's seas and lakes

stanley miller

he was a graduate student at the university of chicago. he tested oparin's hypothesis and attempted to stimulate the conditions of early earth

lithosphere

the earth's first solid layer. it is 100 km (60 mi) deep (from the surface)

asthenosphere

the earth's second layer. it is a very thick liquid (like peanut butter) it is 700 km (430 mi) deep (from the surface)

mesophere

the earth's third layer. it is a solid. it's 2900 km (1800 mi) deep (from the surface)

outer core

the earth's fourth layer. it is a liquid. it is 5100 km (3200 mi) deep (from the surface)

inner core

earth's fifth layer (the innermost layer) it is a solid and is 6370 km (3960 mi) deep (from the surface)

focus

the spot where an earthquake occurs (usually below the surface of the earth)

epicenter

the place on the surface directly above the focus

p-waves

similar to sound waves in the way they are transmitted. they travel fastest and are the first to be received by earthquake recording instruments called seismographs (6.1 km/sec)

s-waves

similar to water waves in the way they are transmitted. arrive at the seismograph sometime after p-waves (4.1 km/sec)

igneous

a rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma. there are two types: volcanic and plutonic

magma

super hot liquid rock

volcanic igneous

solidified rock formed from lava/magma; cools quickly (prevents crystals from forming)

plutonic igneous

formed on the interior of the lithosphere; cools slowly (forms crystals)

sedimentary

sediment glued or cemented together to form a rock. there are three types

sediment

a fragment of material (usually rock)

heat and pressure

the reasons rock types change

metamorphic

a type of rock that changed to another type

granite

an example of a coarse grained igneous rock

basalt

example of volcanic igneous rock

fragmental

(type of sedimentary rock) pieces of rock cemented together with great pressure to form a new rock

chemical

(type of sedimentary rock) rocks formed of material dissolved in water

organic

(type of sedimentary rock) rocks made from materials that were once living

sandstone

a group of sedimentary rock. made up of cemented grains of quartz fragments and sand

shale

a deposit of clay fragments that have become rock as a result of pressure (type of sedimentary rock)

limestone

sedimentary rock made up of calcium carbonate. it is formed from the skeletal remains of previous living organisms

serpentine

a common metamorphic rock. it is a greenish rock which is sometimes distinctly crystalline and at other times appears non-crystalline. it's high in aluminum and magnesium

lithospheric plates

the lithosphere is cut up into pieces called plates. (they're like puzzle pieces) these plates can be made up of continental or sea floor material

asthenosphere convection

energy that comes up from the earth's core and pushes the plates apart (divergent plates) after this happens, the energy circles back and starts the cycle again

continent-continent

continents converge/mash together, which results in the creation of mountain ranges (i.e. himalayas)

continent-sea floor

subduction occurs. in this process the sea floor plate slides under the continental plate. this creates mountain ranges on the coastlines and trenches (i.e. west coast of s. america)

sea floor-sea floor

when two sea floor plates converge/mash together, they create volcanoes and subduct to become trenches. if they are tall enough, the volcanoes go above water and become islands. (japan-how it was created. aleutian islands-sea floors converging. trenches and island arcs-creates these when plates subduct)

divergent plates

when plates are moving away/apart from each other (i.e. rift valleys-east africa)

mid ocean ridges

these ridges run around the entire globe along the floor of every ocean in the world. they represent the boundaries of various plates that are moving apart.

mid atlantic ridge

a zone of elevated sea floor lying in the atlantic ocean midway between the continents of the americas and the continents of africa and europe

transform boundaries

when plates are moving/sliding past each other (i.e. bay area and san andreas fault)

weathering

breaks down rocks, water washes sediment downhill

erosion

causes sediment to form, moves it down

blue schist

an example of metamorphic rock (usually a blue-ish color)

pillow basalt

an igneous rock that forms from magma that comes up from between two divergent plates. (shaped like a pillow) ones on ring mt. were formed 7000 mi away from here on the bottom of the ocean near the equator

marble

an example of a metamorphic rock

Inertia: Things in motion or at rest stay that way unless acted upon by a force.

Newton's first law

F=ma Force in newtons: N=kg m/sec/sec

Newton's second law

Action-Reaction: For every action force there is an equal and opposite action force

Newton's third law

Units for work

Joules

Units for force

Newtons

Units for power (not h.p)

Watts

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

a. Determine the initial acceleration

2 m/s/s

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

b. Determine the initial force

4000 N

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

c. How long did it take to cover the 60 meters after the force was stopped?

7.5 sec

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

d. What amount of work and power was required to get the car up to speed? (in joules and watts)

313,600 Joules and 78,400 watts

149.8 meters

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

e. How high is the cliff?

A 2000 kg car is pushed with a constant force from stop to a speed of 8 m/sec. The work covered 78.4 m and took 4 seconds. It then maintains this constant speed of 8 m/sec for a distance of 60 meters until it falls off a cliff, being destroyed upon impact after 5.53 seconds of free fall.

f. What was the vertical speed on impact?

54.2 m/s

Number of watts in a horsepower

746 watts

Velocity

speed with a direction

Speed

how far something is moving in a unit of time

Acceleration

change in velocity per time unit

Acceleration of gravity on the surface of the earth

9.8 m/s/s

A car is accelerating from stop at a rate of 20 m/s/s. If it continues like this, how long will it take the car to reach 80 m/s/?

4 seconds

A laundry basket weighs 22 N and a room is 3 meters above you on the second floor. It takes you 6 seconds to carry the laundry basket up. What is your power in watts?

11 Watts

In which of the following situations is work being done?
a) Rolling a bowling ball
b) Pushing on a tree for ten minutes
c) Carrying a suitcase for one hour

A

same

Is more work done when a force of 2N moves an object 3 meters or when a force of 3N moves an object 2 meters?

Which direction would you move if you were trying to catch a ball while standing still on roller skates?

backwards

36000N

Find the force it would take to make a 1200-kg truck go 30 m/s.

What is the net force acting on a .15-kg hockey puck accelerating at a rate of 12 m/s/s?

1.8N

What force is needed to accelerate a 25-kg cart at 14 m/s?

350N

A downhill skier reaches the steepest part of the trail. Her speed increases from 9 m/s to 18 m/s in 4.5 seconds. What is her average acceleration?

2 m/s/s

8.5 m/s/s

What is a race car's average acceleration if its speed changes from 17 m/s to 51 m/s in 4 seconds?

Observation

A Interpretation that can be proved

Interpretation

A premonition that is probable, yet has no proof. A Theory.

Hypothesis

A educated guess of what will happen

Scientific Method

A series of steps that will lead to a rational answer

Experiment

A scientific test

Scientific Notation

2x10^2

Common Notation

200

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