Who was Gregor Mendel? What did he study?
A priest at a Central Monastery who studied pea plants. He is considered the father of genetics.
What is heredity?
The passing of physical characteristics from parent to offspring.
What are the differences between purebred and a hybrid?
A purebred has the same alleles dominant and recessive/ traits (RR or rr), whilst the hybrid has different alleles/traits (Rr).
What are traits?
A characteristic that an organism can pass on through its genes.
What is a Punnett Square?
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross.
What is a Punnett Square used for?
It can tell you the probability of your child having a trait.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
The phenotype is an organism's physical appearance, and the genotype is the genetic makeup.
Example of a phenotype
Example of a genotype
What are chromosomes made out of?
Genes are made of this
What is the result of meiosis?
The result is the resulting sex cells only have half as many chromosomes. This is how a unique being is created.
How can two organisms have the same phenotype but different genotypes?
You can have a situation where you have dominant alleles. You can look alike like twins, but not be the same. A person can be tall (dominant) and have the genotypes TT or Tt.
The chickens on page 123 have this phenotype.
Black and white feathers
What genotype does the chickens on page 123 have?
F 8 FW
This produces sperm cells and egg cells
End result of meiosis
What is the difference between haploid and diploid cells?
2 Haploids make diploids; A haploid has one set of chromosomes and a diploid has two complete sets of chromosomes.
How many haploids and diploids do each of you have?
4 haploid and 2 diploid
An organism grows into a fully grown organism through which process?
What type of cells are produced by meiosis?
_____________ results when two sex cells join.
The newly formed organism is known as a ________.
A gene contains the code that determines the structure of a _____________.
What is a mutation?
A random change in a gene or chromosome
What does a mutation cause a cell to do?
It causes the cell to produce an incorrect protein which can change the organisms phenotype.
What is codominance?
When the alleles are neither dominant or recessive. As a result, both alleles are expressed in the offspring.
How is codominance related to blood type?
Blood type AB is codominant. A black chicken with white wings is codominant.
The end result of meiosis is ____________ haploid daughter cells.
An example of when mutations are good and bad
Mutations can be harmful if it reduces the organisms chances for survival. Antibiotics and bacteria are examples of good mutations.
How are RNA and DNA related?
DNA makes RNA which makes proteins
What do you call the likelihood that a particular event will occur?
4 main blood types
A, B, AB, and O
This parent determines the sex of a child
Why does the dad determine the sex of the child?
Fathers carry both an X and a Y chromosome
Why is there a 50/50 chance of the offspring being a boy or a girl?
Males contribute X or Y 50:50
Why can a female not be affected by a Y linked gene?
A female does not have a Y chromosome
Why are only females carriers for colorblindness
Females have 2 X chromosomes. Males either have it or they don't
Does a carrier actually have the disease?
No, they can just pass the gene to their offspring
Does the environment affect a person's characteristics?
Yes, things such as diet and weather can affect a person.
What is a genetic disorder?
Abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes.
What is Down Syndrome?
This occurs when you have 3 of chromosome 21
What is Hemophilia
No/slow blood clotting