History Notecards (Nash's)

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Ethnocentric

the belief in the inherent superiority of one's own ethnic group or culture

"China is a sea which salts all rivers..."

Foreigners trade in China by (sea), the foreigners (river) take back parts of China's culture back home

Dynastic Cycle

•A dynasty is founded through a rebellion
•Almost all dynasties go through stage of peace, power, and prosperity
-fair taxes. Taxes were used in best interest of people, used to pay working people
-built palaces, irrigation systems, roads, temples, schools, invested in arts
-borders usually expand
•Decline
-taxes were raised
-ruler becomes selfish unkind and doesn't care for anyone else
-irrigation systems neglected
-army neglected and abandoned
-rivals easily attack
•The Fall
-rebellion
-foreign invaders
-natural disasters

Shi Huangdi

•did not want scholars to question his rule
•did not want new ideas spreading
•did not want scholars to meet so he buried 460 scholars alive.
•ordered all books except medical books to be burned
•He only valued peasants and soldiers because
-peasants supplied food and silk
-soldiers defended empire
•ordered compulsory labor; one month per year on
-roads
-roads
-irrigation channels
-Great Wall

Qin Capital

at Xianyang

Accomplishments of the Qin

•united china-Shi Huangdi first emperor
Standardized:
-writing
-currency
-roads
-axel width
-weights and measures
-taxes
• connected Great Wall
• Built the Emperor's Tomb and terracotta soldiers
• started what is now the Grand Canal
• Code of Qin-unified laws
• extended their borders

Government System Under the Qin

establishment:
•Qin defeated Chou (Jo) using cavalry with bows and arrows
•founded by Qin Shi Huangdi

System:
•followed Legalism
•autocratic government/totalitarian regime
•3 advisors reported to the emperor
empire divided into 36 districts
-3 governors per district
-imperial inspector oversaw the civil governor and the military governor
-imperial inspectors reported to advisors who reported to emperor
-below everyone are the local officials

Fall of the Qin

•people disgruntled over higher taxes, forced labor, and autocracy
•discontent led to a rebellion
•rebellion led by peasant "general" Liu Bang who then founded the Han dynasty

Liu Bang

peasant "general" who overthrew the Qin and founded the Han

Han Capital

Chang'an which is now called Xian

Accomplishments of the Han

established the Civil Service System
•means government
established Imperial Academy in Chang'an
•was where budding scholars would go to study the Confucian Classics (sort of like a library)
•extended territory INTO
-central Asia
-Indochina
-Manchuria
-Korea
•established leveling
•by defeating the Huns, the Han established Chinese peace
•Silk Road

Leveling

in times of good harvests, the government bought surplus grain for farmers to keep the prices from going down and stored it so in times of bad harvests, the government could distribute the grain to keep the price for grain from going up

Civil Service System under the Han

•to join you have to pass a test based on the Confucian Classics
•was a meritocracy because based on intellect, but partially aristocracy because higher ranking officials were appointed

Wu Di

-established imperial academy in Chang'an
-scholars would go to study Confucian books
-extended territories into central Asia, Indochina, Manchuria, Korea
-established leveling
-defeated the Huns and established Chinese peace(Pax Sinica)

Silk Route (AKA Silk Road) (Result of the Pax Sinica)

•European trade route from China to Europe
•carries silk, jade, paper, and porcelain from China to Greek and Roman traders (middlemen) ; (*= Chinese inventions)
•traders brought glass, amber, wool, and linen back to China from the West

Han Inventions

Paper
Porcelain

Pax Sinica

peace

Fall of the Han

•revolt overthrew Han
•another period of warring states arose (220-589 CE)
•China was reunified in 589 by the Sui

Emperor Wendi

-Also known as Yang Jiang
-ended second warring states period

Sui capital

Chang'an

Accomplishments of the Sui

•reunited China
•reinforced and connected the Great Wall
•dug Grand Canal
•built roads and palaces
•strengthened the government
•improved Civil Service System and tests
•improved/established new codes of law

The Grand Canal

connected the Huang He and Chang Jiang
•linked northern and southern China for the first time
•good for trade and transportation

Fall of the Sui

one opinion:
•government was weak
•attempted and failed to take land from Manchuria and Korea
•conquered by the Turks in 615
•dynasty fell in 618
another opinion:
•the people revolted because the government required too much labor and taxes were too high

Li Yuan

Also known as Duke of Tang;
minister for Yangdi
took over empire following assassination of Yangdi
first emperor of Tang dynasty
took imperial title of Gaozu.

Tang Capital

Chang'an
•center for government and trade
•Arab, Persian, Jewish, & Greek traders made Chan'an their home
-made Chang'an diverse

Li Bai

daoist poet, wrote about happiness, died reaching for his reflection in the water... he was a wee bit "tipsy"

Du Fu

-his poetry was influential
-poet
-Confucianist
-wrote about human suffering

the Buddhist Problem

•Buddhism reached its peak (and decline)
•wealthy people liked Buddhism and gave money and land to monasteries
-monasteries and Buddhist leaders became wealthy and influential
•government leaders destroyed:
-40,000 shrines
-4,600 monasteries
•government leaders forced 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns to give up their beliefs
•because government felt threatened by the growing wealth of the Buddhists

Revival of Confucianism

•government revived Confucianism for the Buddhists
•made it into a religion
•made Confucian temples
•was successful
•brought back Civil Service system
•Confucian Classics read "you must follow the government no matter what"
-government probably wanted to instill the ruler to ruled ideology that seemed to have been almost lost within the popularity of Buddhism

Civil Service System Under the Tang

•emperor at the top
•beneath emperor, government split into three branches
•first branch is Chancellory and Secretariat
•second branch was the Department of State Affairs
-Civil Office
-Rites
-Revenue
-War
-Justice
-Public Works
•third branch was the Censorate

Chancellory and Secretariat

advised emperor

Department of State Affairs

•Civil Office: employed people into the government
•Rites: religious and ceremonial affairs & greeting of foreign ambassadors
•Revenue: oversaw taxes
•War: military/defense
•Justice: laws
•Public Works: oversaw infrastructure

Censorate

1) The "watchdog"
2) Ran the government as a whole

Tang Agriculture

•new crop: quick ripening rice
-allowed for two harvests per years
-also better irrigation systems
•new crop: tea

Tang Tax System

•first taxed on how much crop you produce
•then in 700s taxed also on the land you owned
-caused lots of peasants to become tenant farmers
-government benefitted, not peasants
•people owed a certain amount of grain & labor each year (pre-Tang)
-peasants who lived on the estates of high officials were exempt

Tenant Farmer

a farmer who works land owned by someone else

Fall of the Tang

Gradually declined due to:
•weak emperors
•eunuchs gained too much power
•high taxes then falling taxes
•natural calamities, ex. floods, droughts, diseases
•governors in provinces stopped trusting emperor and questioned his power
•Mongols attacked

Zhao Kuangyin

Founder of Song dynasty
originally a general following fall of Tang
took title of Taizu
failed to overcome northern Liao dynasty that remained independent.

The First Song Capital

Kaifeng

Khitan

Nomadic people of Manchuria; militarily superior to Song dynasty China but influenced by Chinese culture; forced humiliating treaties on Song China in 11th century. Made the Song pay them silver every year.

Jurchen/Jin dynasty

group from the middle east that moved into Manchuria and founded the Jin dynasty
-capital in present day Beijing

The Second Song Capital

Hangzhou

Civil Service System under the Song
(Explain: Levels and Precautions Against Cheating)

exams at three levels:
•less than 10% passed the local exam
-if a person passed the local exam he could go on to take the second exam held at the capital in Kaifang
•less than 10% passed the second exam
-if a person passed the second exam he was awarded the title of "Juren" -- not guaranteed position in the government, but could stay at the capital to take the third exam
•third exam was most difficult
-if a person passed the third exam he was awarded the title of "Jinshi"
-if a person passed the third exam he was guaranteed a position in the government, brought great honor to his family

precautions against cheating:
•searched for memory aids
•given numbers to replace their name so that the judges couldn't recognize them
•guards watched test takers
•federal scribes copied each test so the handwriting would not be recognized
•exams judged by 2-3 judges

Juren

people who passed the second exam aka "elevated man"

Jinshi

title granted to those students who passed the 2nd most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office

Literati

Jinshi who passed final exam

Song Inventions

•gunpowder invented during the Tang but used during the Song
•moveable type came from Korea c. 1030
-not popular because there were so many Chinese characters (but better than block print)

City Life of the Wealthy

•lived a good life
•could buy anything in the market
-all types of food
-entertained by street performers and theaters
-had nice houses
-womens' feet bound so could be carried in a sedan chair

City Life of the Poor ("Welfare System")

•went to cities for work
•government helped poor
-healthcare
-shelters
-food (emergency)
-money (emergency)

Fall of the Song

•invaded by Mongols in 1200
•Genghis Khan captured Beijing, Jin capital by 1270
•Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis, took over all of China by 1280

Battle Advantages & Battle Tactics

•warriors on horseback
•saddles with iron stirrups
-lets Mongols aim and shoot arrows while riding
•surrounded enemy
•gift exchanges to form alliances
-tributes

Temujin

•Genghis Khan's birth name
•went to live with future wife, Borta at age nine
-raised by Borta's family
•dad was poisoned by Tatars so Temujin had to go home to be chief
•uncles ruled for Temujin
•Temujin later kicked out
•joined a new clan and emerged as leader when he was about 30 years old
•in 1205 Temujin gained title "Genghis Khan" (became known as "universal ruler" when unite Mongols)

Genghis Khan

•in 1205 Temujin gained title "Genghis Khan" (became known as "universal ruler" when unite Mongols)
•divided army into 95 groups called a "quran"
•each quran consisted of 1,000 soldiers
•then divided further
•Genghis had body guards called the "Imperial Guard"
•established messenger system
•took control of Mongolia, then Manchuria, Korea, northern China, central Asia, and parts of Russia
•died in 1227 from falling off of his pony
•empire divided after death

Messenger System

- Riders carried messages from one location to the other
- Posts with horses were placed though out the kingdom to give riders fresh horses
- Riders could go 200 miles a day

Ogodei

-Genghis's son and second great Khan
-ruled over mongolia and Most of China
-took control of central Asia

Batu

- Grandson of Genghis
-led campaign into Europe
- took some slaves
-during his rule the Mongols were known a the Golden Horde in Europe
-after Batu, a few rules spread throughout the empire

Golden Horde

•"golden" for stuff they stole
•"horde" means elite cavalry force

Kublai Khan

•grandson of Genghis
•raised in China
•educated in China
•liked Chinese culture, for the most part
•advised by Confucian scholars (literati)
•became 3rd "Great Khan
-ruled over Manchuria
-ruled over northern China
•conquered southern China early in rule
•named his Chinese dynasty the Yuan
•In 1271 became self proclaimed emperor of China
-Yuan means "Great Origin"
-Yuan is modern day Chinese currency
•moved his capital to Khambalik (present day Beijing)
•wants to conquer the Song in southern China
•wanted to keep Chinese culture alive
-liked Confucian dance/music
-wore Chinese robes
•open to different religions in China
-mother converted to Christianity
-favorite wife was Buddhist
-valued and respected Confucian classics/rituals
-built a Confucian temple
-allowed Muslims to practice Islam
-allowed Daoists to practice Daoism
-gave the dhali lama the right to rule over western China (Tibet)
-allowed the building of Buddhist temples and monasteries in western China
•although liked Chinese culture, Chinese and Mongols had to be apart
-not allowed to marry
•set up a social scale (high to low)
-Mongols (warriors)
-foreigners (traders, doctors, architects, engineers)
1. added dams & locks to the grand canal
-northern Chinese
-southern Chinese
•extended Grand Canal from Huang He to Khanbalik
•built stone roads along Grand Canal
-boats unload and take road if needed
-over 1,000 miles
•built roads (mail routes) that connected China to India and Persia
•died in 1294
Factors that hindered the Invasion of southern China
•irrigation systems
•rice paddies
-swampy
-hard on hores
•Song had forts
-could attack Mongols from heights
•Song had gunpowder
•Song had armies
Mongol Advantages
•copied song boats
•horseback

Yuan Capital

Khanbalik

Government System under the Mongols

- local government reported to central government (federal)
-policy started in the Qin dynasty, stopped, then Kublai brought it back

Fall of the Yuan

•literati started to resent the foreigners who held high government positions
•Chinese people started to resent Kublai for giving foreignors highly skilled jobs
•after Kublai, series of weak rulers
•Mongol military leaders started to fight amongst themselves
•Huang He flooded
-destroyed lots of crops which led to a famine
-Kublai then made people repair and work on the Grand Canal
•Kublai was harsh when people extended Grand Canal
•rebellions broke out
•secret revolutionary societies started to form
-Main ones are
1. Red Turban Society
2. White Lotus Society
•Zhu Yuanzhang led Red Turbans and Mongols ran away

Zhu Yuanzhang

•Buddhist monk
•leader of the Red Turbans
•became emperor of the new Ming dynasty in 1368

"Ming"

bright

Ming Capital

was in Nanjing from 1368-1421 then move to Beijing

Junks

•enormous ships that the Ming made
•had
-rudders
-more sails
-oars
-maps

Yongle

•supported overseas travel from 1402-1424
•Ming emperor
•built The Imperial Palace and The Temple of Heaven

Zheng He

•admiral of all of the overseas expeditions under Yongle for 30 years
•expeditions went around India,up through Persian Gulf, to east Africa (specifically Kenya), up through the Red Sea, then back to China
•one purpose of voyages was for diplomacy
•another reason was for trade
•brought back:
-gold
-silver
-incents
-herbs
-spices
-rhino horns
1. for medicinal powders (didn't work)
-one giraffe
1. for imperial zoo
-pearls

Diplomacy

•the conduct of the relations of one state (or country) with another by peaceful means
•skill in the management of international relations (forming alliances)

Xuande

-stopped all overseas travel in 1433
-Yongle's grandson
-believed in saving money for defense
-Confucians believed that trade is bad

Ming Social Classes

•social classes broken up based on hierarchy based on Confucian thought (high to low):
-emperor
-literati (scholar officials that advised emperor and ran the empire)
-peasants (farmed land and payed taxes; supported empire)
-artisans (produced fancy things)
-merchants (parasites) make profit from other people's work)
1. were making a profit from trade to the west
•idea arose that the home empire was more important than the rest of the world (no outside influence)

Ming Tribute Systems

•had alliances with Japan, Korea, and Tibet
-gave gifts in exchange for loyalty
•had a tribute system with the Mongol bands
-Mongols promised to fight for China if need be in exchange for gifts
•promised soldiers free land along the Wall if they promised to fight for China and guard the Great Wall
-while soldiers were guarding, they fortified the Wall

Ming Tombs

-Started by Yongle
-12 emperors after yongle buried themselves in the Ming tombs
-total of 13 tombs

Imperial Palace/The Forbidden City

•ordered by Yongle in 406
•completed in 1420
•huge
•where government officials, eunuchs, and concubines lived and worked
•where imperial family lived
•imperial workers lived there too, for example the imperial tailor, the imperial blacksmith, the imperial tutors, etc.
•if you weren't part of the imperial court, you werent allowed in the palace

Temple of Heaven

1) Built between 1406 and 1420 during Yongle reign 2) Emperors worshiped here for good harvests

Fall of the Ming

•eunuchs gained too much power
•literati couldn't agree, were divided
•government spent more time on goods than they took in with taxes
•soldiers stopped getting payed, so they quit
•Emperor Tianqi raised taxes
•Manchus attacked
•Nurachi led Manchu invasion
•Li Zicheng took over Imperial Palace

Nurachi

- Lead invasion of China
- Nurachi and his son took over part of northern China and founded "The Later Jin Dynasty"
- After Nurachi died and his son Abahai took over

Abahai

•Nurachi's son
•captured 4 Ming cities
•renamed the dynasty to "Qing" which means "pure"
•died in 1643

"Later Jin Dynasty"

the Qing Dynasty before it was renamed by Abahai was called the Jin dynasty, the second one in history, so now it is called the later Jin dynasty

Dorgon

-Abahai's brother
-reigns for Shunzhi until he is old enough

Li Zicheng

-Chinese rebel
-takes over the imperial palace in April of 1644
-Ming emperor hanged himself along with his court eunuchs, empresses committed suicide, emperor murdered all all of his daughters, sons escaped

Chongzhen

Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen invasion of the Forbidden City at Beijing. He helped his sons escape
and made his daughters and wife commit suicide.

Shunzhi

-Abahai's son
-comes to power when Abahai dies but is only 6 years old so Abahai's brother dorgon rules for him

Mancu Rule

•in June, 1644 Manchus invaded and took over Beijing, claiming the Mandate of Heaven for Shunzhi, Nurachi's grandson
•soon all of China was under Manchu rule
•Chinese people had to learn the Manchurian language in school
•Chinese and Manchus couldn't intermarry
•Manchus attempted to stop footbinding (failed)
•Chinese men forced to wear a queue
-to distinguish Chinese from Manchu
-to show Chinese obedience to Manchu rule
•Qing opened up trade on the silk road
•biggest exports were silk and tea
•some overseas trade to India

Qing Agriculture

•new agriculture:
-sweat potato
1. "poor man's food"
-tobacco
-peanuts

Kangxi

•1661-1722
•followed Shunzhi
•was a good emperor
•followed Confucianism
•tried to get people to learn how to read
-to read Confucian classics
-novels began to appear
•liked Civil Service System based on testing
•put time and effort into flood control
•used leveling

Qianlong

-Kagxi's grandson
-ordered construction of the summer palace

Hsien Feng (Xianfeng)

•ruled from 1851-1861
•inherited the throne at 20 (1851)
•he "married" Cixi, the concubine who
became the empress later (1861)
•reigned during the second Opium
Wars
•agreed to the first unequal treaties

Cixi

-ruled from 1861-1908
-Hsien Fengs favorite "lady friend" because she was the only "friend" to have a son to inheret the throne(Tangxi)
-when the emperor died in 1861 she took the throne
-loved to spend money on luxury things
-after the Europiens destroyed the summer palace she rebuilt it
-she built a marble boat when she should have spent it on the military

Tangxi

Tangxi

Guangxu

•the new emperor - Cixi would rule for him

Fall of the Qing

•long & complicated story...
-Opium Wars (1839-1842)
-Taiping Rebellion (1844-1864)
-Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901)

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