After Queen Elizabeth Tudor's death in 1603, the Stuart Line of rulers came. Started with James I, King of Scotland. (Cousin of Elizabeth.) Then came Charles I, his son. Charles II. Then James II. Then William of Orange.
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625 tried to rule as much as possible w/o parliment
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). imposed arbitrary powere (coerced freedom, quartered troops) parliment refused to grant him funds, when he needed funds he called parliment back, but the put restrictions on him and gave themselves more power...His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
english bill of rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
a french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
Dynasty in France started by the reign of King Henry IV, powerful and EXTREMELY wealthy, rulers of this Dynasty wanted hegemony (dominant power), wanted to see shift of balance of power
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715) "the sun king"
palace of versailles
A large royal residence built in the seventeenth century by King Louis XIV of France, near Paris. The palace, with its lavishgardens and fountains, is a spectacular example of French classical architecture. The Hall of Mirrors is particularly well known. The peace treaty that formally ended World War I was negotiated and signed here as well.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
revocation of edict of nantes
In October 1685, Louis XIV, the grandson of Henry IV, renounced the Edict and declared Protestantism illegal with the Edict of Fontainebleau. This act, commonly called the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, had very damaging results for France.
time of troubles
followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
this dynasty favored the nobles, reduced military obligations, expanded the Russian empire further east, and fought several unsuccessful wars, yet they lasted from 1613 to 1917.
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Guards of the Moscow palace during the Romanov Dynasy who rulers faced the constant threat of mutany from
great northern war
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia had Poland, Denmark and Saxony as allies. Treaty of Nystad is where Russia gained Latvia and Estonia and thus gained its Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
a Russian fleet of ships that was sent to defend Russians in the Russo-Japanese War. they traveled 18,000 miles, but many sailors died from heat on the way, and by the time they were cose, the war was over, so they go to Vladistock instead
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
a powerful family of German nobles in control of Spain, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, parts of eastern Europe, the Austrian Empire, and the Holy Roman Empire.
siege of vienna
In 1683 a demoralizing defeat of the Turks, which signaled the reversal of their fortunes
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler (challenged by frederick the great)
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs had to fight of prussia as son as she assended the throne
A Prussian dynasty that would emerge Prussia as a powerful German state bcs of land inheritance
the great elector
the name given to Frederick William who was on the greatest Hohenzollerns. He reorganized the armies into one strong force and improved tax and encouraged agriculture, industry, and transportation
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism. hohenzollerns gave them right to controll serfs if they were obedient.
frederick the great
the soldier king, King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years' War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe.
war of spanish succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
treaty of utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
war of austrian succession
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
seizure of silesia
When Frederick II ignored the Pragamatic Sanction and seized the Austrian province of Silesia.
treaty of paris
This treaty ended the Seven Years War
7 years war
War where Austia, Russia and others joined forces to attack Prussia (who had support of eng), who were saved by Peter III's rise to power
the ancient regime
or the Old Regime-the life and institutions of all prerevolutionary continental Europe.
-England to Russia
Lords in Eastern Europe revived serfdom to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants' right of moving freely
1773, tried to restore traditional system with rights for peasants
16th and 17th century in Low countries, where dutch landlords and farmers devised better ways to build dukes and to drain land so that they could farm more extensive areas. They also experimented with new crops, such as clover and turnips, that would increase the supplies of animal fodder and relenish the soil.
open field farming
Land is divided into strips and worked on by villagers
privatization of communal resources, creation of labor force; land taken from peasants; sent massive amounts of people to work in the city, in factories with machines
putting out system
system of merchant-capitalists "putting out" raw materials to cottage workers for processing and payment that was fully developed in England
This term grew out of the industrial revolution in the 18th Century as mass production of clothing became a mainstream industry.
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery. (607)
Sections of towns and cities in which Jews were forced to live.
pre modern anti-Semitism
jews separated as distinct group of people, religiously and legally