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GBIOL_CH23

Urban sprawl typically results in

increased commuting distances.

The most important limiting factor for most commuters is

the time it takes to drive to their job.

"Prior to WWII, people living in cities in the United States enjoyed "

widespread use of public transportation.

This region just outside of Las Vegas illustrates

urban sprawl.

"Over time, as suburban sprawl develops, major traffic flow shifts from"

into and out of cities to traffic between urban centers.

"When people consider urban sprawl, they would be surprised to find a situation in which"

residential density is high.

Urban sprawl has resulted in

wildlife habitat fragmentation.

"Consider a comparison of people living well in densely populated cities versus people living well in less dense suburbs. For the people living in the cities, it is"

less expensive to provide social services and utilities and impacts the environment less.

"Compared to the inner city, the families living in these suburban homes are most likely"

wealthier Caucasians.

One of the keys to helping the people who live in the vast slums surrounding major cities in the developing world is to

grant them lawful titles to the land where they live.

The common denominators of livable cities include

high population density and heterogeneous mixtures of residences and businesses that encourage people to socially interact.

Three characteristics of sustainable cities are ____________.

"high population density, mixed residential and commercial development, and people-friendly design , This kind of approach reduces automobile use and associated pollution."

Which of the following is true regarding urban blight?

Urban blight is a problem in both developing and developed countries.

How would LA21 utilize Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability?

LA21 uses the Millennium Development Goals as a guide when helping cities. This would include reducing poverty and hunger while protecting natural resources.

You are concerned about the effects of climate change. What should you encourage your mayor to sign?

U.S. Mayors' Climate Protection Agreement

"Climatologists recorded the temperature and pH of the oceans in more than 1,000 locations for more than 30 years. The results indicate that the oceans are warming and dropping in pH. This is an example of"

sound science.

The lessons of the people of Easter Island best reveal the need for

sustainable development.

"With input from the native people, Waitakere City in New Zealand has undergone dramatic changes. The new approach to city living largely benefits from the fundamental principle of"

environmental stewardship.

"The general progress in Trenton, New Jersey comes from changes that"

improve the quality of city living.

"You are the mayor of a city. Based on the success of Waitakere City in New Zealand, which of the following should you involve when making decisions to improve sustainability in your city?"

local people

How has the Highway Trust Fund impacted life in the United States?

It resulted in more people living in the suburbs.

Which of the following cities have lost at least 50% of their population since 1950?

"St. Louis, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Detroit "

"With the move to the suburbs, people are getting less exercise because "

they have become accustomed to driving everywhere.

"As exurban migration and urban decay occur, cities experience ____________."

"decreased property values, decreased tax base, and business closures. "

Which of the following is an impact of urban sprawl on quality of life?

decreased physical activity

Urban sprawl includes

" the suburbs, white flight, and the exurbs."

When did private ownership of cars in the United States start to become commonplace?

"Private ownership of cars began to be commonplace late in the 1940s, following World War II."

"You want to live in a metropolitan area that has a high score on the ""sprawlometer."" Where should you live?"

"San Francisco, CA "

You are a city official concerned about increasing sprawl. Which of the following should you do to reduce additional sprawl?

Encourage the development of the dilapidated downtown.

The principal adverse environmental impacts of urban sprawl include ____________.

"alteration of land, increased energy consumption, and impaired air and water quality "

Which of the following activities generally occurs less frequently in the United States in the period following WW II?

walking to work

"In general, commuting to work after WW II was more common because of"

increased automobile ownership and the Highway Trust Fund.

The dense traffic and wide highways illustrated in this photograph are the result of

the Highway Trust Fund.

"In many other developing urban regions around the world, suburban sprawl"

and the car-dependent lifestyle are both increasing.

"Driving through slow, congested traffic on a busy Saturday afternoon, you barely have time to notice all of the signs on the shopping malls. Your friend wants you to head to the next town but it is unclear where one town begins and ends. Which of the factors just described are characteristic of urban sprawl?"

"abundant shopping malls, unclear boundaries between towns, and dense, congested traffic "

"Driving through slow, congested traffic on a busy Saturday afternoon, you barely have time to notice all of the signs on the shopping malls. Your friend wants you to head to the next town but it is unclear where one town begins and ends. As you continue driving, your friend notes that he grew up in this region and nothing has really changed. Then, most surprisingly, he mentions that"

he has never had a car and always got around using public transportation.

"When generally comparing life in suburban sprawl and life in the inner city, people living in the inner city"

walk more.

"The choices to live in ever-expanding suburbs, despite the costs to society and the environment, reflects a choice that places greater value on"

personal good over common good.

"As the number of people moving to the suburbs increases, property values in cities "

decline.

"You are the mayor of a rapidly sprawling city. You want to follow in the success of another mayor, Jaime Lerner, in slowing this sprawl. What should you do?"

Fund mass transit efforts.

"In a large city experiencing urban blight, we would be surprised to find"

improving schools.

Organizations such as the Shack/Slum Dwellers International are helping the people who live in the vast slums surrounding major cities by

representing them to institutions such as the World Bank and city governments.

"In the city of Boston, Massachusetts, the prominent elevated expressway that once ran through the heart of the city has been moved to a an underground system. The area that once was the expressway has now been converted into"

a tree-lined promenade.

Your community wants to revitalize its urban economy and move toward sustainability. Which city should serve as your model?

"Chattanooga, TN "

Cities that move toward sustainability will

"promote social justice, manage growth, and fight environmental degradation. "

Which of the following represents a way for you to help better the environment through improving legislation?

Call your city council members and encourage them to support a tax on plastic bags.

"This weekend is the big dorm event, with many outdoor activities on campus. Student life and the sponsoring student organizations have much to plan. One group is assigned the job of picking up all litter after the event and collecting up all the waste aluminum beverage cans. Then the cans are to be taken to the local recycling center. These responsibilities are a practical example that best illustrates"

stewardship and sustainability.

"The public's understanding of how science is done, especially as it relates to environmental policies, is essential. Therefore, the general public needs to understand that action may be necessary when scientists"

reach a consensus.

"As a result of the goals of Agenda 21 adopted by Waitakere City in New Zealand, the city has seen"

about a 30% reduction in garbage generation per citizen.

The conversion of the abandoned service station on the left to the new fire station on the right represents

the use of a brownfield site to fight urban blight.

The affordability and popularity of _________ changed the geographic structure of American cities.

automobiles

What impact did the gasoline tax have on the amount of gasoline being used?

"Ironically, the implementation of a gasoline tax increased the use of gasoline. The revenue from gasoline taxes was used to improve roads, which increased the number of drivers, which allowed for more taxes collected, and so on."

How did the buildup of developed land in the United States change between 1982 and 2001?

The amount of developed land increased by about 50% between 1982 and 2001.

You are a member of a citizens-action group concerned with sprawl. Your city receives funding from the TEA-21. What should your group encourage the city to spend the money on?

creating new bike paths

"As an urban region experiences urban sprawl, the"

number of shopping malls increases.

Which of the following activities of the federal government most encouraged urban sprawl in the period following WW II?

low interest home loans

"Over the past 50 years in the United States, commuting"

"time has remained about the same, but the distance has doubled. "

Urban sprawl is associated with

"low residential density, high physical separation between homes, work, and shopping, and congested traffic due to inadequate road networks. "

"A friend who was raised in a Chicago suburb was describing what her life was like growing up. Then she said something very surprising and unexpected. She said that in her suburban town,"

just about everybody bought locally raised vegetables at the farmer's market.

"Tired of the traffic jams downtown, Roxanne decides that she wants to move out to the suburbs. Then she won't have to spend so much time in the car. One major problem with this decision is that on average, people living in suburbs"

spend as much time commuting as people living closer to the city.

Smart-growth efforts are being used with great benefit to growing communities. Which one of the following is a principle of smart-growth?

Expanding suburbs should have physical boundaries that limit further spread.

Which of the following would be most likely to slow urban sprawl?

decreasing property taxes in cities

"When we compare urban blight in developed and developing countries, we typically find"

decreasing population densities in developed countries but increasing population densities in developing countries.

High crime rates in U.S. cities are generally the result of

poor social conditions.

"In the more livable modern cities of the world, you are now less likely to see"

"parking lots, automobiles, and highways. "

"Which of the following cities are on opposite ends of the sustainability spectrum, according to SustainLane?"

"Portland scored well on the sustainability spectrum, whereas Mesa did not."

Which of the following is a lifestyle choice that will better the environment?

Bringing reusable bags to the grocery store.

The changes in behavior of the fishermen on Tangier Island since 1997 best reflects

values-based stewardship.

"Major changes in the city of Trenton, New Jersey are largely the result of"

people helping themselves.

"Major cities of the world are developing sustainable strategies to address the shifting needs of their populations. Illustrating these problems and solutions are two cities on opposite sides of the Earth. The city of Trenton, New Jersey has developed sustainable approaches to fight urban"

blight while Waitaker City in New Zealand is addressing urban sprawl.

What term is used to denote communities farther away from cities than even the suburbs?

exurbs

People fleeing metropolitan areas and moving to the suburbs is often termed ________ flight.

white

Which program is designed to foster planning and management to move cities in developing countries toward sustainability?

Sustainable Cities Program

The U.S. Mayors' Climate Protection Agreement commits cities to meeting __________ targets.

Kyoto Protocol

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