Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ___ changes throughout the human life cycle
During the course of successful parental development a human organism begins as a?
zygote and then fetus
Infants first demostrate a prefrence for their mother's voice over the voices of other women by the time they are __ old.
Darlene smoked heavily during the enitre 9 months of her pregnancy her newborn baby will most likely be?
The rooting reflex refers to a babies tendency to?
Open mouth in search of a nipple when touched on a cheek
Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in __ of the major developmental milestones.
Age related timing but not the sequence
The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to??
Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle aged male nurse took care of him. What does this illustrate?
Incorporating new info into existing theories is to __ as modifying existing theories in light of new info is to __
Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
Sensor and motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
During which Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exsist even when they are not perceived?
Sensor and Motor
If childern grasp the principle of conservation they are unable to?
Unable to understand the shape can change and retain same volume
The russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that childrens ability to solve problems is enhanced by?
Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is in Piaget's __ Stage.
Senor and motor
According to Piaget, egocentrisim refers to?
inability to imagine an object from the prespective of another person
The powerful survival impluse that leads infants to seek closeness to their care giver is called?
Providing children with a safehaven in times of stress contributes most directly to?
A secure attachment
1 year old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly perfers being held by her mom than by anyone else. THis illustrates?
Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatricians office lil sandra tenaciously clings to moms skirt. This shows?
IN a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to?
A secure base from which thy explore
Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas other fail to respond predictabily to their infants demands. These practices are contribution in infant diff???
Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between infants and their mothers?
When placed in a strange situation without their artifical mothers, Harlow's infants monkeys demostrated signs of?
Chilldren's sense their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of?
Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This contributes to?
For several months following as sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of?
Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they demostrate?
High parental control, low responsiveness
Parents who are demanding and yet and sensitively responsive to their children are said to be?
A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of?
Theory of mind
The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ___ stage of development.
According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a __ morality.
Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong bc it is illegal. Kohlberg would say she demonstrates __ morality?
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves?
Affimation of self defined eithical princples
Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates __ morality.
Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs __ in life and adult independence begins __ in life.
According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively are?
Indentity, intimacy and generativity
Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy's first ejaculation and a girl's first menstural period, which also is called:
Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?
In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing __ during adolescence and then __ during young adulthood.
Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?
Doesn't account for the fact that moral reasoning its cultural specific
Sam, a junior is high school, regularly attends church bc his family and friends think he should. WHich stage of moral reasoning is Sam in?
After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30 year old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn't want to mary bc he is afraid of losing his freedom and independenc. Erikson would say he's having difficulty with?
Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexepted death. This illustrates?
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of?
The conscious auditory rehearsal that facilitates long-term memory storage requires __ memory.
After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot from new memories. He can however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adams memory difficulty illustrates?
Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted bc she "possesses" an IQ of 145. She is clearly commiting the error known as?
Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual's mental capacities?
L.L. Thurstone identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities including word fluency, memory, and reasoning. He claimed that word fluency?
Involved a different dimension from that of reasoning
The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is?
A diverse set of distinct abilities
Compared to Gardner, Sternberg has identified __ independent dimensions of intelligence and his forms of intelligence have been ___ reliably measured.
When professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. She illustrates was skill?
Studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains?
Neural processing speed
Psychologists use __ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.
In order to determine whether a child's intellilectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the childs?
Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the?
Extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity
For the orignal version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as?
Mental age over chronicological Age X 100
A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a ___ test.
If a test is standardized, this means?
A persons performance can be prepared with a rep. of a pretested group
Personality is best defined as an individual's?
Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
Which of the following techniques was Frued most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients symptoms?
Freud believed that our unconsciously repressed impluses express themselves in?
Dreams, defense mechanisms, and slips of tongue
According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the?
Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impluses and reduces anxiety by means of?
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates the defense mechanism of?
Projection refers to the process by which people?
Disguises unacceptable uncon. impluses by attributing to others
Test that present ambigous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called __ tests.
According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after all other "D" needs have been met is the need for?
Self-actualized people. As described by Maslow, are least likely to?
experience an external locus of control
Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by?
Selective studying people with qualities he admired
Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?
Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience?
A negative self concept
The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is an advocate of
In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are:
more intense and less prolonged
An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of?
A social phobia
Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety- producing situations is most indicative of certain?
The billionaire aviator Howard insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. HIs behavior illustrates?
Rats who recieved unpredictable electric shocks in lab experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same lab setting. This illustrates?
Julius is obsessed with avoidign germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 x a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his bathing bc this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety. This reflects a__ perspective.
Some psychologists believe that partly due to a broadening definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been over diagnosing?
As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed cord to the toaster. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters this illustrates?
Psychiatrists and psychologist label behavior as disordered when it is?
Deviant, distressful, and disfunctional
One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the process of?
Assessing human strengths
The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characterisitics of their parents' complex symptoms is facilitated by the use of?
The criteria for classifying behavior as psychologically disordered?
Vary from culture to culture and time to time
Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with?
In order to understand his patients' repressed conflicts, Freud sought to identify the ___ of their dreams.
Transference refers to a clients?
Expression towards a therapist of feeling linked with earlier life relationships
The placebo effect typically leads us to ___ the effectiveness of therapy, and regression toward the mean typically leads us to __ the effectivenss of therapy.
Over estimate, over estimate
Dr. Miller prescribes drugs for the treatment of chornic depression and she encourages rest and relaxation training for clients suffering from excessive anxiety. Dr is most likely?
Preventive mental health attempts to reduce the incidence of psychological disorders by?
Establishing programs to elevate poverty
Scientists who win a nobel prize almost always experience diminished accomplishments thereafter. This can be explained in terms of?
Regression to the mean