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Psychology concepts and connections book Nineth Edition

Developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and ___ changes throughout the human life cycle

Social

The formation of a placenta signals the onset of ___ development

Embyronic

During the course of successful parental development a human organism begins as a?

zygote and then fetus

Infants first demostrate a prefrence for their mother's voice over the voices of other women by the time they are __ old.

1 day

A terotogen is a?

Substance that can harm unborn child

Darlene smoked heavily during the enitre 9 months of her pregnancy her newborn baby will most likely be?

Underweight

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is?

Alcohol

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrom are most likely to include?

mental retardation

The rooting reflex refers to a babies tendency to?

Open mouth in search of a nipple when touched on a cheek

Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in __ of the major developmental milestones.

Age related timing but not the sequence

Maturation refers to?

Biological growth not the enviroment

The relative lack of neural interconnections in the association areas at the time of birth is most likely to contribute to??

Infantile amnesia

According to Piaget, schemas are?

a conceputal framework

Interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called?

assimilation

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle aged male nurse took care of him. What does this illustrate?

Accomodation

Incorporating new info into existing theories is to __ as modifying existing theories in light of new info is to __

assimilation, accomodation

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

Sensor and motor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational

During which Piaget's stages does a person develop an awareness that things continue to exsist even when they are not perceived?

Sensor and Motor

If childern grasp the principle of conservation they are unable to?

Unable to understand the shape can change and retain same volume

The russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that childrens ability to solve problems is enhanced by?

Inner speech

Piaget is best know for his interest in the process of ___ development.

cognitive

Interpreting new experiences in terms of exsisting schemas is called?

Assimulation

According to Piaget, accomodation refers to?

adjusting current schemas

Olivia understands her world primarily by grasping and sucking easily available objects. Olivia is in Piaget's __ Stage.

Senor and motor

The egocentrisim of preschoolers was most strongly empasized by???

Piaget

According to Piaget, egocentrisim refers to?

inability to imagine an object from the prespective of another person

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to?

Abstract thinking

The powerful survival impluse that leads infants to seek closeness to their care giver is called?

Attachment

Providing children with a safehaven in times of stress contributes most directly to?

A secure attachment

A critical period is a phase during which?

Certain events have a strong impact on development

Which of the following is and example of imprinting?

Choose earliest point of development

1 year old Eunice is not overly fearful of strangers but she clearly perfers being held by her mom than by anyone else. THis illustrates?

Secure attachment

Instead of happily exploring the attractive toys located in the pediatricians office lil sandra tenaciously clings to moms skirt. This shows?

insecure attachment

IN a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to?

A secure base from which thy explore

Some mothers feed their infants when they show signs of hunger, whereas other fail to respond predictabily to their infants demands. These practices are contribution in infant diff???

Attachment

Which of the following factors contributes most positively to the development of secure attachment between infants and their mothers?

responsive partnering

When placed in a strange situation without their artifical mothers, Harlow's infants monkeys demostrated signs of?

insecure attachment

Chilldren's sense their parents are trustworthy and dependable is most indicative of?

Secure attachment

Already at 15 months of age, Justin strongly senses that he can rely on his father to comfort and protect him. This contributes to?

Basic trust

For several months following as sudden and unexpected divorce, Henry was excessively preoccupied with thoughts of his ex wife. His reaction resulted from the disruption of?

Attachment

Two characteristics of authoritarian parents are that they demostrate?

High parental control, low responsiveness

Parents who are demanding and yet and sensitively responsive to their children are said to be?

Authoritative

Aurthoritative parents are likely to have children who?

Have high self-esteem, and are self relient

Compared to aurthoritarian parents, authoritative parents are likely to be?

More responsive

The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by?

Piaget

A child's realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of?

Theory of mind

The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as?

The critical period

Adolescence extends from?

Beginning of sexual maturity to independent adulthood

The body structures that enable reproduction are the?

primary sex characteristics

The first ejaculation is to an adolescent boy as __ is to an adolescent girl

manarche

The ability to think logically about hypothetical situations is indicative of the ___ stage of development.

Formal operational

Piaget is cognitive development as Kohlberg is to __ development

Moral

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents a __ morality.

Preconvential

Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition, Juanita believes it would be morally wrong bc it is illegal. Kohlberg would say she demonstrates __ morality?

Coventional

According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves?

Affimation of self defined eithical princples

According to Erikson, trust is to __ as identity is to __.

Infancy, adolesence

According to Erikson, isolation is to intimacy as role confusion is to?

Identity

According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the?

Adolesence

Erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is the special task of the?

Intimacy

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates __ morality.

Post conventional

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs __ in life and adult independence begins __ in life.

Earlier, Later

Female breasts are to ___ as male testes are ___.

Secondary, primary

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by?

Erikson

Adolescence is typically a time of?

Deminishing parental influence and growing peer

According to Erikson, the central psychological challenges pertaining to adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age, respectively are?

Indentity, intimacy and generativity

In preconventional morality, the person:

Obey simply to avoid punishment or gain reward

Among the hallmarks of growing up are a boy's first ejaculation and a girl's first menstural period, which also is called:

Menarche

Adolescence is marked by the onsest of?

Puberty

Whose stage theory of moral development was based on how people reasoned about ethical dilemmas?

Kohlberg

In Erikson's theory, individuals generally focus on developing __ during adolescence and then __ during young adulthood.

Identity, intimacy

Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a criticism of Kohlberg's theory of moral development?

Doesn't account for the fact that moral reasoning its cultural specific

Sam, a junior is high school, regularly attends church bc his family and friends think he should. WHich stage of moral reasoning is Sam in?

Conventional

After a series of unfulfilling relationships, 30 year old Carlos tells a friend that he doesn't want to mary bc he is afraid of losing his freedom and independenc. Erikson would say he's having difficulty with?

Intimacy

The presistance of learning over time most clearly depends on?

Memory

Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexepted death. This illustrates?

Flashbulb memory

The process of encoding refers to?

Getting info into memory

Storage is to encoding as __ is to ___.

retention, acquistion

A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in __ memory.

Longterm

The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of?

Working memory

The conscious auditory rehearsal that facilitates long-term memory storage requires __ memory.

Working

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot from new memories. He can however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adams memory difficulty illustrates?

Encoding failure

The process of getting information out of memory is called?

Retrival

The 3 steps in memory information processing are?

Encoding, storage, and retrevial

Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted bc she "possesses" an IQ of 145. She is clearly commiting the error known as?

Reification

Factor analysis is a statistical procedure that can be used to?

Identify clusters

Spearman's g factor refers to?

General Intelligence

Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individual's mental capacities?

Spearman

L.L. Thurstone identified seven clusters of primary mental abilities including word fluency, memory, and reasoning. He claimed that word fluency?

Involved a different dimension from that of reasoning

The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is?

A diverse set of distinct abilities

Robert Sternberg distinguished among analytical, practical, and __ intelligence.

creative

Compared to Gardner, Sternberg has identified __ independent dimensions of intelligence and his forms of intelligence have been ___ reliably measured.

Fewer, more

When professor McGuire asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. She illustrates was skill?

Emotional intelligence

Studies suggest that there is a positive correlation between intelligence and the brains?

Neural processing speed

Psychologists use __ to assess individuals' mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others.

Intelligence tests

In order to determine whether a child's intellilectual development was fast or slow, Binet and Simon assessed the childs?

Mental Age

Binet and Terman would have been most likely to disagree about the?

Extent to which intelligence is determined by heredity

For the orignal version of the Stanford-Binet, IQ was defined as?

Mental age over chronicological Age X 100

A test of your capacity to learn to be an automobile mechanic would be considered a ___ test.

Aptitude

Achievement tests are designed to?

Assess learned Knowledge

Aptitude tests are to __ as achievement tests are to ___.

Future preformance, Current competance

The WAIS consists of seperate ___ subtests.

Verbal and performance

If a test is standardized, this means?

A persons performance can be prepared with a rep. of a pretested group

Personality is best defined as an individual's?

Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting

Which of the following techniques was Frued most likely to use in an attempt to discover the hidden conflicts underlying his patients symptoms?

Free Association

Freud called his theory of personality and the associated treatment techniques?

Psychoanalysis

According to Frued, thoughts that are too unsettling for people to acknowledge are?

Repressed

Freud believed that our unconsciously repressed impluses express themselves in?

Dreams, defense mechanisms, and slips of tongue

The pleasure princple is to the __ and the reality principle is to the ___

ID, Ego

The superego is the part of the personality that?

Generates feelings of guilt

According to Freud, the most important erogenous zone during earliest infancy consists of the?

mouth

Freud suggested that in the process of development people pass through?

Latency before genital

Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impluses and reduces anxiety by means of?

Defense mechanisms

A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates the defense mechanism of?

Reaction formation

Projection refers to the process by which people?

Disguises unacceptable uncon. impluses by attributing to others

Carl Jung emphasized the importance of __ in personality functioning.

collective unconscious

Test that present ambigous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called __ tests.

projective

According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after all other "D" needs have been met is the need for?

Self-actualization

Self-actualized people. As described by Maslow, are least likely to?

experience an external locus of control

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of:

Self-determination

Carl Rogers suggested that the ___ is a central feature of personality.

Self concept

Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by?

Selective studying people with qualities he admired

Self-acutalized people, as described by Maslow, are especially likely to:

Be open and spontaneous

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?

Rogers

Carl Rogers suggested that those who fall far short of their ideal self experience?

A negative self concept

In promoting personality growth, the person-centered perspective emphasizes all but?

elturism

The school psychologist believes that having a positive self-concept is necessary before students can achieve their potential. Evidently, the school psychologist is an advocate of

humanistic persepective

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by:

A continuous state of tension

In comparison to generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder is characterized by periods of distress that are:

more intense and less prolonged

An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of?

A social phobia

Incapacitating efforts to avoid specific anxiety- producing situations is most indicative of certain?

Phobias

The billionaire aviator Howard insisted that his assistants carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. HIs behavior illustrates?

OCD

Rats who recieved unpredictable electric shocks in lab experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same lab setting. This illustrates?

classical conditioning

Julius is obsessed with avoidign germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 x a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his bathing bc this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety. This reflects a__ perspective.

Learning

Some psychologists believe that partly due to a broadening definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been over diagnosing?

PTSD

As Jordan watches, his brother receives an electric shock from touching the frayed cord to the toaster. Jordan is now intensely afraid of toasters this illustrates?

Observational learning

Psychiatrists and psychologist label behavior as disordered when it is?

Deviant, distressful, and disfunctional

Inattention, hyperactivity, and implusivity are major symptoms of?

ADHD

Adderall is a ___ drug which is commonly used in the treatment of ___.

Stimulant, ADHD

One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the process of?

Assessing human strengths

A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is?

DSM-IV

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characterisitics of their parents' complex symptoms is facilitated by the use of?

Diagnostic labels

The criteria for classifying behavior as psychologically disordered?

Vary from culture to culture and time to time

Our early ancestors commonly attributed disordered behavior to ?

Evil spirits

The term insanity refers to?

Legal Definition

The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV?

High

Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with?

Psychotherapy

A therapist who take an eclectic approach is one who?

Uses a variety of psychological theories

A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is?

Free association

In order to understand his patients' repressed conflicts, Freud sought to identify the ___ of their dreams.

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