What two muscles are used for FORCED EXPIRATION only?
How many muscles contract during Normal Expiration?
No muscles contract.
It is caused by Releasing inspiratory muscles.
Briefly describe a spirometer
records air blow in to a water filled container.
Tidal Volume (TV)
The volume of air breathed in or out in a normal relaxed breath. EXPECTED= 500 ml.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after a normal inspiration. EXPECTED= 2,300 ml.
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
The max. volume of air that can be expired after a normal expiration. EXPECTED= 1,300 ml.
Vital Capacity (VC)
The max volume of air that can be expired after a max inspiration. EXPECTED= From table in lab book.
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
Total volume of air in the lungs after a max Inspiration. TLC= VC + RV
When Spirometer does not measure inspiration, what equation should you use?
Only changes how fast the air is inspired/expired. The volume will be the same, it will not change.
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)
A measurement of the rate of air moved in or out of the lungs. This measures disease. UNITS= ml/sec.
What is FEV1?
FEV during 1 second.
Decreased lung elasticity due to scar tissue from inspired particulate matter. Dust particles are covered by scar tissue
What can cause Pulmonary Fibrosis?
Coal Dust(coal miners)
What are the two types of respiratory system disease?
Problem in airway passage.
Lower FEV1, but no VC change
Reduced lung elasticity or volume.
Lowers VC, but no FEV1 change.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, COPD
Emphysema and Bronchitis
Blood PH level (normal)
pH below 7.35
pH above 7.45
What are the two systems that maintain proper pH?
1.) Buffers in Blood
2.) Breathing Rate
What control speed of reaction in pulmonary loop?
Normal adult breathing rate
12 to 20 breaths/minute
Infants average breathing rate
20 to 40 breaths/minute
What causes change in blood pH?
Less than adequate breathing rate.
Respiratory Acidosis (acidosis caused by hypoventilation)
What causes Hypoventilation?
*Severe breathing disorders (pulmonary fibrosis, asthma)
More than the adequate breathing rate. This will cause Respiratory Alkalosis ( due to hyperventilation)
What causes Hyperventilation?
Panic attack (usually self correction)
Diseases that increase natural acids of the body (lactic/fatty acids, amino acids, ketones)
What happens when control centers detect too much H+
Breathing rate will increase
more lactic acid, which causes breathing rate to increase
To maintain proper blood pH
1.) Buffers in blood (FIRST, and have limited capacity to H+)
2.) Breathing Rate (SECOND... has larger capacity to maintain pH)
Alkalosis due to a metabolic disorder (NOT respiratory problem)
What causes Metabolic Alkalosis
*disease that decrease the bodys natural acids
Molecules that stabilize the pH of a solution
Main buffers in blood
H2CO3 (Carbonic acid)
what proteins contribute as buffers