A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)
The electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond are called
The electrostatic attraction between positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons permits two atoms to be held together by a(n)
at relatively high potential energy.
As independent particles, most atoms are
toward low potential energy
Atoms naturally move
decrease their potential energy, thus creating more-stable arrangements of matter.
As atoms bond with each other, they
If two covalently bonded atoms are identical, the bond is
When atoms share electrons, the electrical attraction of an atom for the shared electrons is called the atom's
If the atoms that share electrons have an unequal attraction for the electrons, the bond is called
What are shared in a covalent bond?
partly ionic and partly covalent.
Most chemical bonds are
one atom usually attracts electrons more strongly than the other.
Nonpolar covalent bonds are not common because
The greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms, the greater the percentage of ____ in the bond.
A bond that is less than 5% ionic is considered
Mg and Cl.
The pair of elements that forms a bond with the least ionic character is
The B—F bond in BF3 (electronegativity for B is 2.0; electronegativity for F is 4.0) is
In the three molecules, O2, HCl, and F2, what atom would have a partial negative charge?
0%; nonpolar covalent.
The percentage ionic character and the type of bond in Br2 (electronegativity for Br is 2.8) is
A neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is a
Which of the following shows the types and numbers of atoms joined in a single molecule of a molecular compound?
Which of the following is not an example of a molecular formula?
When a stable covalent bond forms, the potential energy of the atoms
at which potential energy is at a minimum.
Bond length is the average distance between two bonded atoms
minimum potential energy.
The energy released when a covalent bond forms is the difference between zero and the
In a molecule of fluorine, the two shared electrons give each fluorine atom how many electron(s) in the outer energy level?
The electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3. How many more electrons does nitrogen need to satisfy the octet rule?
What group of elements satisfies the octet rule without forming compounds?
In drawing a Lewis structure, each nonmetal atom except hydrogen should be surrounded by
least electronegative atom
In drawing a Lewis structure, the central atom is generally the
number of valence electrons in each atom.
To draw a Lewis structure, one must know the
confirm that the total number of valence electrons used equals the number available.
After drawing a Lewis structure, one should
Multiple covalent bonds may occur in atoms that contain carbon, nitrogen, or
The substance whose Lewis structure shows three covalent bonds is
What is the correct Lewis structure for hydrogen chloride, HCl?
Bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure is
What is placed between a molecule's resonance structures to indicate resonance?
Chemists once theorized that a molecule that contains a single bond and a double bond split its time existing as one of these two structures. This effect became known as
ratio of the combined ions present in a sample.
The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents the
A formula that shows only the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule is called a(n)
The chemical formula for water, a covalent compound, is H2O. This formula is an example of a(n)
In the NaCl crystal, each Na+ and Cl- ion has how many oppositely charged ions clustered around it?
minimum potential energy.
In an ionic compound, the orderly arrangement of ions in a crystal is the state of
The ions in most ionic compounds are organized into a
repel each other.
In a crystal, the electrons of adjacent ions
energy of crystallization
The energy released when 1 mol of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions is called the
strength of an ionic bond.
The lattice energy is a measure of the
lower potential energy.
Compared with energies of neutral atoms, a crystal lattice has
the bonds in compound A are stronger than the bonds in compound B
If the lattice energy of compound A is greater than that of compound B,
have lower melting points.
Compared with ionic compounds, molecular compounds
weaker than the forces among formula units in ionic bonding
The forces of attraction between molecules in a molecular compound are