a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs, and where a substrate attaches.
an attraction between molecules of different substances
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
a solution in which water is the solvent
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
any organic compound that is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things
a material that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy
Chemical compound made out of sugar. Provides structure and support in plants.
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as hormones.
attraction between molecules of the same substance
loss of the normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor. protein unravels.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
lipid; made up of fatty acids and glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils.
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule
attracts water molecules
avoids water molecules
huge molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and a little oxygen; includes fats, oils, and waxes. is hydrophobic.
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
Neither acidic nor basic. a ph of 7.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Two or more amino acids bonded together
A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution; it is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions.
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
a molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed
property of a molecule with oppositely charged ends. because of it, water is able to dissolve many different substances
large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together (monomers)
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
a simple sugar or combination of sugars; a carbohydrate
state of a mixture in which the maximum amount of solute has dissolved in a solution
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
the substance that does the dissolving
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs, any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
solution in which it is possible for more solute to be dissolved