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Anoxia

the absence or almost complete absence of oxygen from inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissues

Anthracosis

a form of pneumoconiosis caused by coal dust in the lungs; also called black lung disease

Aphonia

loss of the ability to produce normal speech sounds

Apnea

the absence of spontaneous respiration

Asbestosis

a form of pneumoconiosis caused by the asbestos particles found in the lungs of workers from the ship building and construction trades

Asphyxia

pathological changes caused by a lack of oxygen in air that is inhaled

Asphyxiation

any interruption of breathing that results in the loss of consciousness or death; also known as suffocation

Asthma

a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing

Atelectasis

a condition in which the lung fails to expand because air cannot pass beyond the bronchioles; also known as a collapsed lung

Bradypnea

an abnormally slow rate of respiration, usually less than 10 breaths per minute

Bronchiectasis

chronic dilation of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from an earlier lung infection that was not cured

Bronchoconstrictor

medication that narrows the opening of the passages into the lungs

Croup

an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by the obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough.

Bronchodilator

medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs

Bronchopneumonia

form of pneumonia that begins in bronchioles

Bronchorrhagia

bleeding from the bronchi

Bronchorrhea

excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi

Bronchoscopy

visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope

Cheyne -Stokes respiration

pattern of alternating periods of hyperpnea (rapid breathing), hypopnea (slow breathing) and apnea (absence of breathing)

Cystic fibrosis

a genetic disorder in which the lungs are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus and the digestive system is impaired by thick mucus and the digestive system is impaired by thick gluelike mucus that interferes with digestive juices.

Diphtheria

an acute infectious disease of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the presence of diphtheria bacteria.

Dysphonia

any voice impairment including hoarseness, weakness, or loss of voice.

Dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing also known as shortness of breath.

Emphysema

the progressive loss of lung function due to a decrease on the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and then the progressive destruction of their walls.

Empyema

an accumulation of pus in the pleural; also known as pyothorax.

Endotracheal intubation

the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish an airway.

Epiglottis

inflammation of the epiglottis.

Epistaxis

bleeding from the nose; also known as a nosebleed.

Hemoptysis

spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs of bronchial tubes as the result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.

Hemothorax

an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity.

Hyperpnea

An abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements

Hyperventilation

Abnormally rapid deep breathing, resulting in decreased levels of carbon dioxide at the cellular level

Hypopnea

Shallow or slow respiration

Hypoxia

Subnormal oxygen levels in the cells that is less severe than anoxia

Influenza

An acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection, that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly during the colder months

Inhalation

The act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward

Laryngectomy

surgical removal of the larynx

Laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

Laryngoplasty

surgical repair of the larynx

Laryngoplegia

paralysis of the larynx

Laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope

Laryngospasm

a sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx

Pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx, also known as sore throat

Pharyngoplasty

surgical repair of the pharynx

Pharyngorrhagia

bleeding from the pharynx

Pharyngorrhea

an abnormal discharge from the pharynx

Pleuralgia

pain in the pleura or in the side

Pleurectomy

surgical removal of part of the pleura

Pleurisy

inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura in the thoracic cavity.

Pneumoconiosis

an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact.

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

a form of pneumonia caused by an infection with the parasite P carinii.

Pneumonectomy

surgical removal of all or part of a lung.

Pneumorrhagia

bleeding from the lungs.

Pneumothorax

An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse.

Pyothorax

an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity; also known as empyema

Rhinorrhea

an excessive flow of mucus from the nose; also known as a runny nose

Sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

Sinusotomy

a surgical incision into a sinus

Spirometry

a testing method to record the volume of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time each breath takes

Tracheoplasty

surgical repair of the trachea

Tracheostomy

creating an opening into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions

Tracheotomy

an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage

Tuberculosis

an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually attacks the lungs

Pharyng/o

throat, pharynx

Phon/o

sound or voice

Pleur/o

pleura;

-pnea

breathing

Pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu

lungs

Trache/o

trachea, windpipe

Epiglott/o

Epiglottis

Bronch/o, Bronchi/o

bronchi

-ectasis

stretching, dilation, enlargement

atel/o

incomplete, imperfect

Mediastinum

also called interpleural space, located between the lungs this space contains the thoracic viscera.

Mycoplasma Pneumonia

A milder, but longer lasting form of pneumonia caused by the fungi, Mycoplasma

Nasopharyngitis

The common cold.

Otolaryngologist

Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the ears, and throat.

Otorhinolaryngologist

Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat.

Pertussis

Also known as whooping cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by a paroxysmal cough.

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