the comparison of two items that are essentially unlike but are alike in a way that is significant to the poet. Are introduced by 'like' 'as' or sometimes 'than'.
a direct identification between two itmes, essentially unlike, but alike in a way that interests the poet.
a metaphor which continues over several lines of a poem, and may even be the organizing principle of a while poem.
Inanimate objects or abstract ideas are given the qualities if humans.
Exaggeration used for serious or comic effect. The opposite is an understatement.
an object or situation in the poem has a literal meaning but it also represents and abstract idea.
the representation through carefully chosen descriptive words of sense experience. Imagery creates mood.
incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
The combonation of two words should contradict each other but do make sence. Examples: bitter sweet, sweet pain of love.
An apparent contradiction that nevertheless turns out to be fundamentally true.
An explicit or implicit reference to characters, places, events in history or literature. The reader is supposed to recognize the reference and by connecing the original with the reference have the meaning of the text enriched.
the repitition of an initial sound in closely realted words.
repition of the same vowel in a line of poetry: seat and weak.
Repition of identical consonant sounds, but with different vowels: lick and luck.
The sound of the word mimics the sound to which it refers.
Use sounds pleasing to the ear.
Use of sounds that are unpleasent to the ear.
The 'glue' that often holds lines of poetry together through similarity of sound.
Words that rhyme to the eye but not to the ear.
the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. The beat of the line.
A ten syllable line in which every second syllable carries the stress.
A pause or break in the line of poetry
end stopped line
the flow of the poem is stopped at the end of each line by punctuation or by the phrasing of a sentence.
The word uses where there is no pause at the end of each line and the words in the next lines are needed to complete the meaning.
The pattern in which lines of a poem are grouped
two consecutive rhyming lines of poetry, like the two at the end of a shakesperean sonnet
a three line stanza
a four line stanza
14 line lyric poem. In a petrarchan sonnet this is divided into an octave and a sestet. The typical shakespearean ine is three quatrains and a couplet.
this follows the natural patterns of the nglish language and does not use traditional rhyme stanza or metre.
a short poem expressing personal emotion or attitude about a topic. Many poems fall into the category of lyrics including sonnets,
a poem that tells a story
a kind of lyric poem in which the speaker addresses a silent listner and reveals himself or herself in a dramatic situation. The speaker povides information about the setting, other key characters, the situation
the poets word choice
the underlying meaning of the poem
the attitude of the poet towards her subject or her audience
the speaker or persona
the person who narrates or speakes the poem.