aspt exam

123 terms by bernikitty 

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accessioning

the process by which specimens are logged in, labeled, and assigned a specimen identification code

palpate

To examine by touch.

bevel

The opening in the needle

empathy

understanding and entering into another's feelings

apathy

lack of interest; state of not caring

professional

describes people who are paid for what they do

phlebotomy

cutting into a vein

venipuncture

puncture of a vein through the skin in order to withdraw blood for analysis or to start an intravenous drip or to inject medication or a radio opaque dye

anticubital fossa

Triangular layer, anterior to elbow where the major veins for vena puncture are located

cephalic vein

Large vein on the outermost side of the upper arm

basilic vein

Large vein on the inner side of the upper arm

medial cubital vein

On the anterior surface of the vein. Vein of choice in intravenous injections.

syncope

fainting

lumen

opening within a hollow tube or organ

bevel

n. Any inclination of two surfaces other than 90 degrees.

capillaries

tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body

extracellular fluid

all body fluid other than that contained within cells; includes plasma and interstitial fluid

intracellular fluid

fluid inside the cells

interstitial fluid

liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body

peripheral blood

Blood obtained from the outer surface of the body- (an extremity)

capillary blood

Should be collected from the ring or great finger in adults, and lateral sides of the heel in infants, and (rarely) in earlobes

susceptable person

a person with a compromised immune system.

nosocomial infection

an infection acquired in a hospital or other healthcare facility; also known as hospital-acquired infection (HAI).

carrier/host

a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act

aspetic

(adj.) germ free

antiseptic

a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues

assault

intentional threat to physically or offensively injure another

battery

an assault in which the assailant makes physical contact

negligence

careless neglect, often resulting in injury

hemolysis

Destruction of red blood cells

pathogenic

capable of producing disease

OSHA

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

CDC

Center for Disease Control

PPE

Personal Protective Equipment

universal precaution

an approach to infection control that requires the employee to assume that all human blood specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV,HBV and other bloodborne pathogens

basal state

Refers to the resting metabolic state of the body early in the morning after fasting for a minimum of 12 hours.

hypogycemia

low blood sugar

hyperglycemia

abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes

sympathetic blood flow

...

hemostasis

the stoppage of bleeding

hematopoiesis

the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)

spleen

Produces blood cells, destroys damaged blood cells, stores blood cells

anticoagulant

medicine that prevents or retards the clotting of blood

atria

the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.

the heart

Main organ of the circulatory system

SA node

the pace-maker of the heart; where the impulse conduction of the heart usually starts; located in the top of the right atrium

AV node

atrioventricular node: a small mass of tissue that passes impulses received from the sinoatrial node to the ventricles

dermal subcutaneous junction

...

autoregulatory blood flow distress

...

vena cava

One of two large vessels (superior and inferior) that return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart.

frothing

Bubbles caused by improper venipuncture technique; i.e. needle not properly seated within the lumen of the vein, or using too small needle for vein size

coagulant

an agent that promotes the clotting of blood

systemic circulation

circulation that supplies blood to all the body except to the lungs

pulmonary circulation

pathway of circulation between the heart and the lungs

lymphatic circulation

One way system that begins in the tissues and ends when the lymph joins the blood.

basophils

white blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin

lymphacytes

produces anitbodies

monocytes

a subgroup of mononuclear cells that are called monocytes when they are in the bloodstream and macrophages when they are in tissues. These cells are the APC's that mediate endocytosis and presentation of antigen to T and B cells during immune reactions

transmission of infection

any mode or mechanism by which an infectious agent is spread through the environment or to another person.

contact

mode of transmission - disease transmitted by direct human contact

droplet

a spray of moist particles 3 feet or less

airborne

mode of transmitted through the air by droplets or particles.

malpractice

professional wrongdoing that results in injury or damage

bloodborne pathogens

disease-causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or body fluids

engineering controls

controls (e.g. sharps disposal container, self sheathing needles) that isolate or remove the Bloodborne pathogen hazard from the workplace

informed consent

consent by a patient to undergo a medical or surgical treatment or to participate in an experiment after the patient understands the risks involved

ethics

moral principles or values

biohazard

organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to (primarily) human health

analyte

Subtance or chemical being analyzed or dected in a specimen.

MSDS

A widely used abbreviation for Material Safety Data Sheet. A MSDS contains details of the hazards associated with a chemical, and gives information on its safe use.

aliquot

a portion of a blood sample that has been removed/separated from the primary specimen tube.

ABG

Arterial Blood Gasses

autologous

term used to describe a transfusion from the recipient's own blood

tort

in law, a civil misdeed requiring compensation

striated muscle

muscle attached to the skeleton, making movement possible

hematoma

the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise

mastectomy

surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor

lysis

the disintegration of a cell by disruption of the plasma membrane

hemoconcentration

concentration of blood due to prolonged application of a tourniquet (longer than 1 minute)

EDTA

Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid, Ties up Ca to prevent clotting of blood. Advantages: Excellent preserving of cells. Disadvantages: Dilution volume is important. Purple top vacutainer tube.

vein patency

The state of a vein being freely open

artery

a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body

arterioles

small arteries that connect to capillaries

PKU

phenylketonuria (disease due to lack of an enzyme in infants)

vein

a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart

venules

small veins that drain blood from the capillaries and then join to form a vein

vasodilation

widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow

vasoconstriction

rapid constriction of the blood vessels to decrease blood flow to the area

tunica media

middle layer of arteries and veins

tunica adventitia

outermost covering of arteries and veins

tunica intima

innermost layer of arteries and veins

buffy coat

a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells

hemogloblin

protein in the blood.(carries oxygen in the red blood cells)

circulatory system

The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells

conduction system

electrical impulses from nerves that stimulate contraction and relaxation of heart

morphology

external form

reticulocyte

immature red blood cell

whole blood

blood which has had an anticoagulant added to it

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein, INFLAMMATION IN THE WALL OF A VEIN WITHOUT CLOT FORMATION

WBC

white blood cell

RBC

red blood cell

PLT

Platelets

bone marrow

a soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells

serum

liquid portion of the blood left after the clotting process

plasma

straw-colored fluid that makes up about 55 percent of blood

osteomyelitis

an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)

coagualtion

clotting after trauma to blood vessels

intrinsic

(adj) belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part

extrinsic

external; not essential or inherent; extraneous

fibrin clot

...

peaks

high level

troughs

one of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance is the greatest.

TDM

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring...Testing of drug levels at specific intervals to help establish a drug dosage, maintain the dosage at a therapeutic level, or avoid drug toxicity.

aorta

The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.

ventricles

the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.

Hgb

hemoglobin

contusion

an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration

OPIM

Other Potentially Infectious Materials are contaminated with blood or with body fluid that may contain blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva. Also includes needles, suction equipment, soiled linens, dressings, and other care items & equipment

TQM

total quality management, a concept that focuses on managing the total oranization to deliver quality to customers

communicable

Something that can be passed from one person to another

lipemic

Serum/plasma that appears milky (cloudy white) or turbid due to high lipid content.

FMC

foundation for medical care

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