What states make up the Middle Colony?
New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennyslvania
Why was it called the Middle Colony?
Given this name because of its relative location between the New England Colonies and southern settlements in Virginia.
Why was it referred to as the "Breadbasket" colonies?
Because the middle colonies produced so many crops used in making bread (wheat, corn and rye).
What attracted settlers to the Middle Colonies?
1. Fertile Land
2. Several large harbors near the Atlantic Ocean that were connected to many of the region's deep rivers, such as the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. Settlers knew that deep waterways allowed large ships to travel to inland settlemtns making trade easy.
Why did few people from the Netherlands settle in New Netherland?
Few people came to the colony because their country (the Netherlands) was wealthy and offered its citizens many freedomes.
Dutch West India Company
Controlled the colony's trade and decided that a new leader was needed to raise their profits and bring order (there were conflicts with American Indians and nearby English colonists over land)
1. Dutch Governor of New Netherland (hired by the Dutch West India Company) - former soldier
2. Expanded New Netherland into what is now New Jersey
3. Then pushed south into what is now Delaware
4. Now controlled more land, but didn't have enough people to be successful so teh DWIC allowed people from other countries to settle into the colony.
Why did England want to control New Netherland?
1. King Charles II wanted England to control the entire Atlantic coast of North America
2. Wanted to build more settlements, control the fur trade, and acquire more lands rich in natural resources
3. But, the colony of New Netherland prevented the King from this goal, so...
How did King Charles II go about geting control of New Netherland?
1. He told his brother James, the Duke of York, he could have all of New Netherland if he could take the colony fom the dutch.
2. James sent four warships to New Netherland and Stuyvesant surrendered.
3. The Duke of York ten split the Dutch colony into two parts and named them New York and New Jersey.
1. Duke of York gave to two friends of his, John Berkley and George Carteret.
2. To get more people to live here, these two people sold land at low prices.
3. Many soon arrived such as the Quakers.
Duke of York kept for himself.
Why were the Quakers mistreated by those who did not share their beliefs?
Quakers believed that all people are equal. The refused to fight in wars or to swear loyalty to any king or country. England did not agree with this and thousands of Quakers living in England were thrown into prison and forced to leave the other English Colonies.
Where was the first Quaker settlement in North America?
New Jersey - Quakers hoped this would be a refuge where they could live and workshop as they pleased.
Who did King Charles II make the proprietor of Pennyslvania?
William Penn was given the land because the king owed a large amount of money to his father. Named Pennyslvania for "Penn's woods."
The Frame of Government of Pennsylvania
1. Penn wrote this plan of government to set up a legislature called the General Assembly, which would make the laws for the colony.
2. Penn's frame of government gave citizens freedome of speech, freedome of religion, and the right to a fair trial by jury.
3. Penn also became the owner of Delaware.
What was William Penn's Holy Experiment?
He wanted all the people living in Pennsylvania - Quakers and non-Quakers to live together peacefully. Also, wanted the American Indians to be treated with justice.
Who was Tamanend?
A Lenni Lenape Indian that he paid for most of the land King Charles II had given him. This built a long-lasting peace iwth teh Lenni Lanape.
What was the Great Awakening?
A religious movement which began in teh Middle Colonies and changed the way that many people practiced their religion. It focused on a direct relationship with God. It created more religious toleration - acceptance of religious differences.
Names of two ministers during the Great Awakening?
George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards
How did the Middle Colonies differ from the New England Colonies?
One major way was that the Middle Colonies had many different religious groups (Presbyterian church, Quaker meetinghouse, Jewish synagogue, etc.) Religion was a major part of social life.
What were some of the ways in which Benjamin Franklin improved the city of Philadelphia?
This most famous Philadelphian helped train the first firefighting company, raised money to help build the first hospital, set up a militia (volunteer army) to protect the city and colony, founded the city's first college and public library - he earned his living as printer.
How did geography affect the Middle Colonies' economy?
The middle colony had richness of land and abundant natural resources. Unlike the New England Colony, it had lots of fertile soil and since farming was the main way people made a living it attracted a lot of settlers.
Why were New York City and Philadelphia good locations for ports?
Because farmers, fur traders and lumber workers in the countryside could float their goods down the river to New York City. Also, the port's deep harbor along the East River offered a good place for ships to dock. Philadelphia, the busiest colonial port at the time, was built along the Delaware River which was also used to ship goods to this port.