2D

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Modernism

"i think therefore i am".
optimistic

Modernism

one universal truth
art became about art
rejected narrative

Modernism

didn't look at the artist, just looked at the art

Modernism

originality
individual

Modernism

high art/low art - some mediums were better than others

Modernism

world is much larger.
began w/ age of enlightenment and the idea of reason

Post-Modernism

appropriation - steal from anywhere that awakens your imagination or inspires you. Steal things that speak to your seal. Originality is non-existent. It's not where you take things from, it's where you take things to.

Post-Modernism

"Texts" and "Works" - the person who made it is a product of their environment.

Post-Modernism

globalization (the shrinking of the world)
internet, technology
we are creating a whole different reality and a diff sense of space

Post-Modernism

not so much the material as what you say w/ it
Escaping the confines of Museums and other Traditional venues

Post-Modernism

gaze - idea of who made the art, thru their eyes
feminist movement contributed to postmodernism
non-originality - you can take and use whatever you want

Post-Modernism

a reaction against modernism
identity became important - many truths

study this

Form

Visual organzation, design, composition, "the How", the carrier of meaning.

Subject

The "What", a person, thing or idea, a noun

Content:

The "Why", expression, meaning, derives from the subjective. The emotional or intellectual message.

Economy

simplicity, understanding what the basic essentials of the image are - for clarity
- getting rid of anything that does not actively engage in the content of the piece
(how will everything in the piece relate to the meaning)

Design Principles

- strategies of organization for effectve visual expression
- Compositional means by which artists arrange design elements

Design elements - ingredients

- used by artists to express feelings and communicate ideas
- point, line, texture, shape, mass, volume space, color, value, time, motion, words, and sound.

Shape (basic structure)

geometric or organic
figure and ground
positive and negative shape
(the way you use shapes on your picture plane to engage)

Line

line types - actual - implied
line in two-dimensional art
what kind of line are you using, and what's the effect? you can use lines to inform the content of what you're trying to say.
line is important in creating movement

Texture

actual texture
implied texture (a symbolic texture) - visual texture; an illusion of tactile qualities
invented texture

Value - most important thing to understand in design

what makes us see things - we respond to values
value pattern the shapes of values, which covers the entire picture plane
a two dimensional picture is usually made up of a puzzle of interlocking values that cover the entire picture plane. This is called a Value Pattern

Color Schemes

monochromatic, analogous, and complementary
triads, tetrads, and hexads
warm and cool colors
earth tones
polychromatic schemes

monochromatic

Use one color, with different values

analogous

colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel.

complementary

colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel, such as blue and orange, red and green, purple and yellow. Complementary color schemes have a more energetic feel

triads

A color scheme in which 3 colors of equidistant distribution on the color wheel are used, e.g., red, blue, and yellow.

tetrads

Tetrads (or quadrads[4]) are any four colors with a logical relationship on the color wheel, such as double complements.

Hexads

a balanced combination of six colors 1) the combination of primary and secondary colors and 2) the combination of all six tertiary colors.

warm and cool colors

Warm color schemes do not include blue at all, and likewise, cool color schemes do not include red at all. For example, a color scheme that includes "warmer" colors may have orange, yellow, and red-orange in it. "Cooler" colors are green, violet, light blue, etc.

earth tones

muted colors found in dirt, moss, trees and rocks.

Polychromatic

having many colors

Space

actual space
virtual space
illusion - in 2d world, what we deal with.

strategies for creating space

overlapping of shapes
interpenetration of shapes (planes)
transparency
use of warm and cool colors (warm pops forward)
use of value changes
line direction (planes)
sharp and diminishing detail (atmospheric perspective)(ariel perspective) things become fuzzy in the background
size (we often interpret largeness of scale in terms of nearness)
Position (the bottom of the picture plane is seen as closest ant the

Types of Perspective

atmospheric perspective
linear perspective
one pt
two pt
three pt

Indicators of Illusional space

foreground, middle ground, and background
size
overlap
transparency
placement

Contemporary Approaches to Space

appropriation - to adopt, borrow, recycle or sample aspects (or the entire form) of man-made visual culture.

vertical force

an arrangement of elements along a vertical axis, often expressing height, power, and grandeur.

horizontal force

an arrangement of elements along a horizontal axis, often expressing peace, restfullness, and stability.

diagonal force

an arrangement of elements along a diagonal axis, often expressing dynamism, agitation, discomfort, and vigor.

circular force

an arrangement of elements along a circular path or radiating from a central point, often expressing fullness, harmony, joy, and inner stability.

triangular force

an arrangement of elements relying on a triangular structure that provides actual or illusional stability.

movement

Eye travel directed by visual design in a work of art.
and/or
The illusion or suggestion of motion.

Unity (Harmony and Variety

Principles that Unify
Grids: Basic Structure for Unity or Variety

Emphasis

Focusing Viewers' Attention

Subordination

Supporting a Larger Theme

making something dominate is effective in creating emphasis

-making certain elements more important than others in a design
-visual hierarchy
-by establishing dominance in a composition one avoids chaos or confusion

use of actual and visual balance can

Bring calmness to work
Add dynamic tension

the degree of visual contrast can

create visual interest
establish juxtapositions of ideas (conceptual contrast)

Symmetrical Balance

type of balance that occurs when the weight of a composition is evenly distributed around a central vertical or horizontal axis

Approximate Symmetrical Balance

equilibrium that is almost but not exactly symmetrical.

Asymmetrical Balance

the type of balance when both sides of the central axis are not identical, yet appear to have the same visual weight; a "felt" equilibrium or balance between the parts of a composition rather than actual equilibrium or balance

Radial Balance

A type of symmetrical balance in which elements are arranges uniformly about a central point.

Proportion

The comparative size relationships between the parts of a whole.
One could use realistic proportion or exaggerated proportion to achieve a psychological effect.

Reflecting on Design Principles

Principles offer common vocabulary, general guides to making and viewing
Consider in conjunction with subject matter, medium, and context.

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