group uniting men and women born during a certain time span
regional figure found among tribal horticulturalists and pastorlists. holds no office but creates a reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity.
means of settling disputes
unequal access to resources; basic attribute for chiefdoms and states
pertaining to finances and taxation
local leader in a tribal society who has limited authority. leads by example and persuasion
as used by antono gramsci, a stratisfied social order in which subordinates comply with dominiation by internalizing it's values and accepting it's naturalness.
used by james scott, the critique of power by the oppressed that goes on offstage in private where the power holders can't see it
a legal code including trial and enforcement. characteristic of state-organized societies
permanent political position
the ability to exercise one's will over others -to do what one wants; based on political status
esteem, respect, and approval for facts, deeds or qualities considered exemplary
used by james scott, the open, public interactions between dominators and oppressed - the outer shell of power relations
those fields of the social systems (beliefs, practices and institutions) that are most actively involved with the maintenance of norms and the regulation of conflict.
a non-kin based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages
the lower or under privileged group in a stratified system
the upper or privileged group in a stratified system
sociopolitcal organization usually based on horticulture or pastorilism. socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes , and no forcing political decision on anyone
a person's material assets including income, land, and other types of property. basic economic status
relatives by marriage, whether of lineals or collaterals.
principle of descent that does not automatically exclude the children of either sons or daughters
bifurcate collateral kinship terminology
kinship terminology employing separate terms for M, F, MB, MZ, FB, FZ
bifurcate merging kinship terminology
kinship terminology in which M and MZ are called by the same terms, F and FB are called by the same term and MB and FZ are called by different terms
bilateral kinship calculation
a system in which kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes; mother and father, brother and sister, daughter and son etc
unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
a genealogical relative who's not in ego's direct line, such as B, Z, FB or MZ
a permanent social unit whoes members claim common ancestry; fundamental to tribe society
in kinship chart, the point from which one views an egocentric genealogy.
extended family household
expanded household including three or more generation
family of orientation
nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
family of procreation
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
explanation that establishes a correlation or interrelationship btwn social customs . when on custom changes, so does another.
generalization kinship terminology
kinship terminology with only two terms for the parental generation, one designating M, MZ, and FZ and the other designating F, FB, MB
system by which people in a particular society reckon kin relationships
unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent
lineal kinship terminology
parental generation kinship terminology with four terms. one for M, one for F, one for FB and MB, and one for FZ and MZ
any of ego's ancestors or descendants on the direct line of descent that leads from and to ego
postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
matrilineal or patrilineal descent
gifts given to the husbands family
children of a brother and a sister
a marital exchange in which the wife's group provides substantial gifts to the husband's family
rule or practice of of marriage between people of the same social group
rule requiring people to marry outside of their own group
biological father of a child
forbidden sexual relations with a close relative
custom by which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
socially recognized mother of a child
children of two brothers or two sisters
socially recognized as the father; not biological
any marriage with more than two spouses; polygamy
plural marriage in which a woman has more than one husband
pluarl marriage in which a man has more than one wife
A gift from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin before, at, or after marriage; legitimizes children born to the woman as members of the husband's descent group
custom by which a widower marries the sister of his deceased wife
marx's opposed classes : owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistent)
wealth or resource invested in business, with the intent of producing a profit
capitalist world economy
the single world system, which emerged in the 16th century, committed to production for sale, with the object of maximizing profits rather than supplying domestic needs
the political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period of time.
A system of government in which the communist party controls the political, economic, cultural and social life of the people used to help overthrow capitalism. successful in the soviet union
dominant structural position in the world system; consists of the strongest and most powerful states with advance systems of production
the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over smaller or weaker nation
the original inhabitants of territories. descendants of tribes people.
the transformation from an agricultural (traditional society) to an industrial (modern society) nation (england)
guiding principle of colonialism, conquest, missionization, or development. idealogical justification for outsiders to guide native people.
Revival of Adam Smith's classic economic liberalism, the idea that governments should not regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule; a currently dominant intervention philosophy
Weakest structural position in the world system.
Referring to interactions between European nations and the societies they colonized (mainly after 1800); more generally, "postcolonial" may be used to signify a position against imperialism and Eurocentrism
Structural position in the world system intermediate between core and periphery
working class, or proletariat
Those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx's class analysis
idea that discernable social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries.