Biology exam notecards

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Biology

The science of life.

Cells

Basic units of structure and fuction in all living things

Reproduction

production of offspring

Homeostasis and example of it

regulation of an organism's internal conditions to maintain life

Adaptation

any inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time

Science

body of knowledge based on the study of nature

Hypothesis

Testable explanation of a situation

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

Chemistry

study of matter

Atoms

building bloks of matter

Element

Pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means

Compound

PUre substance formed when two or more different elemnts combine

Chemical bonds

force that holds substances together

Molecule

Compound in which the atoms are held together by ovalent bonds

Enzymes

special proteins that are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in biological process

Carbohydrate

They are sources of energy composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; that include simple sugars

Lipid

They are made up of carbon and hydrogen and they store energy and make up fats, oils, and waxes

Protein

made up of amino acids

Nucleic Acids

macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information

ATP

storehouse of chemical energy that can be used by cells in a variety of reactions

Plasma membrane

boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions within a cell

Organelles

Specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

Where genetic info in a cell is located

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

The environment inside the plasma membrane; semi-fluid material

Ribosomes

They are made up of RNA and protein, are produced in the nucleolus and some are free and others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum

membrane system of folded sacs and interconnected channels that serves as the site for proteins and lipid synthesis

Golgi Apparatus

Organelle that is a Flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts and packages proteins into sacs which then fuses with the plasma membrane to release the proteins into the environment outside the cell

Vacuole

organelle used for storage

Lysosome

digests old organelles and food

Centrioles

group of microtubes that function during cell division in animal cells

Chloroplasts

Capture light energy and converts it to chemical energy by photosynthesis

Mitochondria

Is the powerhouse of the cell that converts sugars into energy for the cell and it has 2 membranes

Cell Walls

Only in plants and they contain cellulose and they protect and support the cell

Cilia

They are short hair-like projections used for movement

Flagella

Longer, less numerous and move a cell with a whip-like motion

Diffusion

Net movement of particles from and area where there are fewer paricles than an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where they are fewer paticles of the substance

Facilitated Diffusion

transport proteins move ions and small molecules across the membrane-Also doesn't require energy and is also called passive transport

Osmosis

diffusion of water across a selectivley permeable membrane

Active Transport

Movement of substances across the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient (low to high) and requires energy

Autotrophs

They are organisms that make their own food

Heterotrophs

organisms that obtain energy from the foods they consume

Photosynthesis

anabolic pathway in which light energy from the sin is converted into chemical energy for use by the cells

Cellular Respiration

catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell

Cell Cycle

The way cells reproduce by a cycle of growing and dividing

Three main stages of cell cycle

1. Interphase 2. Mitosis 3. Cytokinesis

Interphase

Stage of the cell cycle during which the cells grows and makes copies of its DNA in preparation for the next stage

Mitosis

Stage during which the cell's nucleus and nuclear material divide.

Cytokinesis

Is the method by which a cell's cytoplasm divides creating 2 new cells

Chromosomes

Structures that contain the genetic material that is passed from generation to the next.

Prophase

It is the longest phase where the nucleus and nucleolus seem to disappear. The spindle fibers form and attach to sister chromatids and centrioles migrate toward opposite poles

Metaphase

where sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell and line up in the middle

Anaphase

chromatids are pulled apart as the spindle fibers shorten and chromosomes move toward the opposite poles of the cell

Telophase

Chromosomes arrive at the poles and begin to relax; two nuclear membranes begin to form and spindle apparatus disappears

End Result of Mitosis

2 identical cells

Carcinogens

substances and agents that are known to cause cancer

Stem Cells

Cells that are unspecialized that can develop into specialized cells when under the right conditions

Genes

DNA on chromosomal segments that control the production of proteins

Number of chromosomes in human body

46

Gametes

Sex cells

Number of chromosomes in human sex cells

23

Meiosis

Where gametes are formed during a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes

Prophase I

Replicated chromosomes become visible and consist of 2 sister chromatids. The chromosomes are beginning to form pairs and crossing over may occur

End result of meiosis

4 unidentical cells

Genetics

The science of heredity

Allele

An alternative form of a single gene passed from generation to generation

Which allele is masked over by which

Recessive is masked by the dominant

Homozygous

An organism with 2 of the same alleles for a particular trait

Heterozygous

An organism with 2 different alleles for a trait

Genotype

an organism's allele pairs

Phenotypes

Obervable outward expression of an organism's allele pair

Alkaptonuria

Disorder characterized by black urine. Appears at birth and affects bones and joints and was studied by Dr. Garrod

Cystic Fibrosis

disorder that affects the mucus-producing clands, digestive enzymes and sweat glands.

Albinism

disorder that is cause by the altered genes resulting the absence of the skin pigment melanin in hair and eyes

How Tay-Sachs disease is diagnosed and what does it do to the body

identified as a cherry-red spot on the back of the eye . It is caused by the absence of the enzymes responsible for breaking down fatty acids called gangliosides

Huntington's disease

genetic disorder that affects the nervous system appears in individuals between 30 and 50

Pedigree

diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular train through several generations

Incomplete dominance and give an example

the heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes Ex: snapdragons

Codominance and give an example

both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition for example sickle-cell disease

Sex chromosomes for males/females

XX-female XY-male

Sex-linked traits

traits controlled by genes located on the X chromosome

Barr body

inactive X chromosome

Karyotype

pairs of homologous chromosomes that are arranged in decreasing size to produce a micrograph or picture

Nondisjunction

the sister chromatids fail to separate properly

Parts of nucleotide

phophate, 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous bases

Nitrogenous bases in DNA

adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine

What is different about RNA

adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine

Who built first model of DNA

Watson and Crick

Outside strand of DNA

Phosphate and sugar

Replication

Parental strands of DNA separate serve as templates and produce DNA molecules that have one strand of parental DNA and one new strand of DNA

Bases in DNA held together by

hydrogen bonds

Code for proteins comes from.......

DNA

The mechanism for reading to expressing genes is from

DNA to RNA to protein

3 Types of RNA

rRNA, mRNA, tRNA

In DNA, how the bases pair up

Adenine matches with Thymine Cytosine matches with Guanine

In RNA different in pairings

Adenine matches with Uracil

mRNA

Messenger that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm

tRNA

transports amino acids to the ribosome

Transcription

synthesis of mRNA from DNA

Codons

3 bases in DNA read together

Translation

mRNA moves to the ribosome and the code is read and translated to make a protein

Mutation

permanent change in a cell's DNA

Mutagens

substances that cause mutations

Who discovered the base pairings in DNA

Chargaff

cyto-

cell

troph

nourish

chlor-

green

inter-

between

hetero-

different

homo-

same

gam-

united, joined, sexual

tri-

three

zyg-

yolk, union

eu-

good, well, true

pro-

before, primary

aer-

air, oxygen

exo-

out of, outer

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