WH Background and 1400s
|Bubonic Plague||Also called the Black Death. This was a deadly disease that spread through Europe and killed one out of every three people.|
|Hundred Years' War||Conflict between England and France in which England lost all of its French possessions except Calais. The style of warfare changed fundamentally during this war.|
|Wars of the Roses||Fights for the right to rule England between the houses of Lancaster and York.|
|Prince Henry the Navigator||Started a school for sea explorers in Portugal. Largely responsible for the exploration of the African coast.|
|Inquisition||Searching for those who argue with church doctrine. Often employed torture to prove the guilt of the accused.|
|Johannes Gutenberg||Inventor of the movable-type printing press in Europe in approximately 1450 AD.|
|Renaissance|| Means "rebirth" because it is considered the rebirth of the Classical Era.|
The time period after the Middle Ages marked by innovations in art, architecture, diplomacy, and technology.
|Ottoman Empire||Muslim empire involved in conflicts in Southeastern Europe from 1453 into the 18th century.|
|Leonardo da Vinci|| A Renaissance man - meaning a genius who could do lots of different things. |
A scientist, artist, & great thinker of the Renaissance.
|Neoplatonism||Attempt to mix Plato's philosophy and Christian doctrine. In art, this resulted in perfect figures.|
|Humanism||A Renaissance cultural movement that favored Classical philosophy over medieval scholasticism and focused on human rather than religious matters.|
Felt that Christianity should be a philosophy for how to live your life.
|Sir Thomas More||Author of Utopia, a book where he described the perfect world.|
|Machiavelli|| Political philosopher during the Renaissance.|
Advisor to the Medici.
Thought it was good to be ruthless for political gain.
|Columbian exchange|| Describes the unfair relationship between Europe and the Americas following Columbus's voyage.|
Europe received land, gold, slaves, foods, etc.
The Americas received horses, technology, Christianity, and diseases.
|encomienda system||The system the Spanish established to govern the New World.|
|mercantilism|| Economic philosophy that says there is a set amount of money in the world.|
To get more money, a country builds more colonies.
The idea is that one country gets rich while another becomes poorer.