Medieval India

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Buzurg ibn Shahriyar

tenth-century shipmaster from Persia who wrote a collection of tall tales about India

Kashmir

A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.

Ceylon

an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of India

Harsha

(r.606-648 CE) He restored centralized rule in northern India after the collapse of the Gupta. He can be compared to Charlemagne.

Conquest of Sind

North India, Arabs conquered Sind and brought it under the Abbasid Caliph in 711

Mahmud of Ghazni

Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.

Sultanate of Delhi

Major Turkic Muslim state established in northern India in 1206

Chola Kingdom

Kingdom situated in the deep south. At its high point, Chola forces conquered Ceylon and parts of southeast Asia, funded by the profits of trade, dominated the sea, did not build a tightly centralized state.

Coromandel coast

The coast on the Bay of Bengal. All of the major river of the plateau flow to that coast.

South China Sea

Body of Water- South of China, West of the Philippines

Arabian Sea

Body of water stretching from the Arabian to the Indian Peninsula

Kingdom of Vijayanagar

established by two Indian brothers, northern Deccan, renounced Islam and returned to Hindu faith, fell to an alliance of Islam kingdoms

Delhi

Capital of the Mugal empire in Northern India

Surat

port city on India's northwest coast with an important historical role in trade

Calicut

A city of southwest India on the Malabar Coast southwest of Bangalore. It was the site of Vasco da Gama's first landfall in India (1498) and was later occupied by Portuguese, British, French, and Danish trading colonies

Quilon

The third trading giant, India's entrepot was smaller than the other two, but was still a great source of wealth for India because Junks from china could carry many tons of goods. This was the main trade city for the Indian ocean in the mid eleventh century.

Masulipatam

ancient port town in east-central India

monsoon patterns

Knowledge of these allowed mariners to sail safely and reliably to all parts of the Indian Ocean Basin.

dhows

Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design

junks

Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula

emporia

Indian port cities that were involved in maritime trade in the Indian Ocean Basin.

Kingdom of Axum

Founded in the highlands of northern Ethiopia, adopted Christianity, built an empire that included most of Ethiopia as well as Yemen in southern Arabia.

jati

A sub-varna in the caste system that gave people of sense of community because they usually consisted of people working in the same occupation.

merchant guilds

associations of merchants and traders organized to provide greater security and minimize loss in commercial ventures

Cosmas Indicopleustes

Alexandrian Businessman-Missionary (Church of the East), 6th Century: One of the world's first world geographers. His name includes a title that refers to sailing to India. Was an Alexandrian merchant and later hermit monk. As a 6th-century traveler, he made several voyages to India during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian. Was a pupil of the East Syrian Patriarch Aba I and was himself follower of the Church of the East. Around 550 he wrote the illustrated Christian Topography, a work partly based on his personal experiences as a merchant on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean in the early 6th century. That work contained some of the earliest and most famous world maps. His description of India and Sri Lanka is invaluable to historians. He seems to have personally visited the Kingdom of Axum in modern Ethiopia, as well as Eritrea, India, and Sri Lanka. There had been trade between the Roman Empire and India from the 1st century BC onwards, but his report is one of the few from individuals who had actually made the journey. In 522, he visited the Malabar Coast (South India). For centuries Indian Christian churches have claimed that the Apostle Thomas brought the gospel to India. Thomas' trip would certainly have been possible for a Roman Jew to have made. Communities such as the Cochin Jews and the Bene Israel are known to have existed in India around the 1st century. The earliest text connecting Thomas to India is the Acts of Thomas, written in Edessa perhaps in the 2nd century. Eusebius of Caesarea mentions that his mentor Pantaenus found a Christian community in India in the 2nd century, while references to Thomas' Indian mission appear in the works of 3rd and 4th century writers of the Roman Empire, including Ambrose of Milan, Gregory of Nazianzus, Jerome, and Ephrem the Syrian. Whatever the historicity of the Thomas tradition, the earliest known organized Christian presence in India dates to around the 3rd century, when East Syrian settlers and missionaries from Persia (Church of the East or Nestorian Church) established themselves in Kerala. The Indian St. Thomas Christians trace the further growth of their community to the mission of Thomas of Cana, a Nestorian from the Middle East said to have relocated to Kerala some time between the 4th and 8th century. As the community grew and immigration by East Syrians increased, the connection with the Church of the East, centered in the Persian capital of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, strengthened. From the early 4th century the patriarch of the Church of the East provided India with clergy, holy texts, and ecclesiastical infrastructure. This Alexandrian businessman was the first traveler to mention Syrian Christians in India. His reports gave credence to the ancient claim that the Apostle Thomas established Christianity in India (Kerala and Tamil Nadu) in the 1st century. Around 650 Patriarch Ishoyahb III solidified the Church of the East's jurisdiction over the Saint Thomas Christian community.

cult of Vishnu

...

Shankara

A Hindu reformer and philosopher in the Advaita Vedanta school

Ramanuja

Indian eleventh and twelfth century philosopher who believed that understanding of the ultimate reality was less important than devotion

Bhakti Movement

an immensely popular development in Hinduism, advocating intense devotion toward a particular deity

Bhagavata Purana

a popular epic about the exploits of Krishna as a child wonder worker, lover, and king

Guru Kabir

(1440-1518) a blind weaver, who was one of the most famous bhakti teachers, went so far to teach that Shiva, Vishnu, and Allah were all manifestations of single, universal deity.

Funan

An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E. It was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam, and it controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus.

Srivijaya

A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes.

Angkor

A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.

Singosari

1222-1292 CE. Based on island of Java. Prospered because of maritime trade. At this court, leaders blended Hindu, Buddhist, and local values.

Majapahit

13th-16th C. central Java, rose in the wake of mongol invasions. biggest and most powerful SE Asian island state in history. control almost all of what is today indonesia. golden age of Java culture.

Malay Peninsula

The second peninsula of mainland Southeast Asia; the narrow strip of land serves as a bridge between the mainland and islands.

Isthmus of Kra

Funan's strategic location helped it dominate _______________, a key point on the trade route from India to China.

Strait of Melaka

The only way by sea from East Asia (China) to South Asia, controlled by Muslims

Sumatra

a mountainous island in western Indonesia

Java

Principle Muslim center of power in South Asia

Borneo

Island in Indonesia SW of the Phillipines

Philippines

A country in southeastern Asia made up of several thousand islands

Mekong River

A major river that runs from southern China through Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

Melaka

The first major center of Islam in Southeast Asia, a port kingdom on the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula.

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