Period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted to the Union.
Federal agency setup to help former slaves after the Civil War.
Congressmen who wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders and to give African Americans full citizenship and the right to vote.
White Southerner who joined the Republican Party after the Civil War.
Northerner who moved to the South after the Civil War.
System in which landowners give farm workers land, seeds and tools in return for a part of the crops they raise
Founded by W.E.B. DuBois in 1905 to promote the education of African Americans in the liberal arts.
Annual tax that formerly had to be paid in some Southern states by anyone wishing to vote.
Provision that exempts certain people from a law on the basis of previously existing circumstances--especially a clause formerly in some Southern states' constitutions that exempted whites from the strict voting requirements used to keep African Americans from the polls.
Separation of people on the basis of race.
Jim Crow laws
Laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities.
General pardon by a government, usually for political offenses.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, setting up the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Nonpolitical rights of a citizen as guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments to the Constitution.
Custom that regulated relationships between whites and blacks, enforcing blacks' second class status.
To accuse a public official of misconduct in office by bringing charges before an appropriate tribunal.
Ku Klux Klan
Secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremacy in Southern states after the Civil War.
One who takes law enforcement into one's own hands.