Method of maintaining, managing, and gaining control of government (who gets what, when, and how)
An interpretation of federalism in which the states and the national government have separate jurisdictions and responsibilities
a system of government where rank-and-file citizens rule themselves rather than electing representatives to govern on their behalf
A theory of democracy that holds that citizen membership in groups is the key to political power.
An agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
An essay composed by James Madison which argues that liberty is safest in a large republic because many interests (factions) exist. Such diversity makes tyranny by the majority more difficult since ruling coalitions will always be unstable.
Argues that separation of powers within the national government is the best way to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of one person or a single group.
Necessary and proper clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Article 6 of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
Sharp changes in the existing patterns of party loyalty due to changing social and economic conditions
The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819, Marshall as Chief Justice, Settled issue of whether Congress has power to create a bank even though it is not specifically called for in the constitution. Marshall ruled that the federal government has implied powers, including the power to create national bank. It also said that a state could not tax a federal institution.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
Free rider problem
the problem faced by interest groups when citizens can reap the benefits of interest group action without actually joining, participating in, or contributing money to such groups.
A situation in which two (or more) actors cannot agree to cooperate for fear that the other will find its interest best served by reneging on an agreement.
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
A plan by President Franklin Roosevelt intended to bring economic relief, recovery, and reforms to the country after the Great Depression. (1933-1942)
Basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
A political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property., An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.
A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president, a system of government in which both executive and legislative functions reside in an elected assembly. The head of the government must be a current member of the legislature.
A political party created in the 1790s and influenced by Alexander Hamilton that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade.
The party formed by thomas Jefferson that derived its coalition from the argarian party. It is also known as the Democratic Republic
Political Action Committees
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations
Organization set up after Citizens United to engage in independent electioneering. Can receive unlimited donations but cannot coordinate with a candidate. Causing amount of money spent on elections to skyrocket (SuperPacs have spent $85 million so far in Election 2012)
Non-profit and unregulated interest groups that focus on specific causes or policy positions and attempt to influence voters
According to Lester Milbrath, a "communication, by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision."
Public interest group
an organization that seeks a collective good that will not selectively and materially benefit the members of the group.
paid professional representatives of the interest group meet privately with government officials to suggest legislation and to present arguments supporting their positions.
attempts to influence government policymakers by encouraging the general public to put pressure on them
power to the state rather than the people to decide how they ought to live there lives. (people cannot effectively claim rights against the state)