table

glossary

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1.
antecedent: the if-clause

2.
argument: a set of statements where some of the statements, called the premises, are intended to support another, called the conclusion

3.
argument form: a pattern of reasoning

4.
categorical statement: relates two classes or categories, where a class is a set or collection of things.

5.
cogent argument: a strong argumetn in which all of the premises are true

6.
conclusion indicators: typically followed by a conclusion. example: so, therefore, hence, thus

7.
conditional statement: if-then statement

8.
consequent: the then-clause

9.
counterexample: a substitution instance in which the premises are true and the conclusion is false

10.
deductive argument: the premises are intended to guarantee the conclusion

11.
deductive logic: part of logic that is concerned with the study of methods of evaluating arguments for validity and invalidity

12.
disjunction: either-or statement

13.
disjuncts: statements comprising a disjunction

14.
enthymeme: an argumetn that has one or more premises or its conclusion left implicit

15.
excess verbiage: word or statement that adds nothing to the argument. typical examples include discounts, repetition, assurances, and hedges

16.
fallacy of affirming the consequent: invalid argument form: if A, then B; B; so A

17.
fallacy of denying the antecedent: invalid argument form: if A, then B; not A; so not B

18.
formally valid argument: valid in virtue of its form

19.
good counterexample: a substitution instance in which the premises are well-known truths and the conclusion is a well-known falsehood.

20.
inductive argument: the premises are intended to make the conclusion probable, without guanranteeing it

21.
inductive logic: part of logic that is concerned with the study of methods of evaluating arguments for strength and weakness

22.
invalid: it is not necessary that, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true

23.
invalid argument form: some invalid substitution instances

24.
negation: statement's denial

25.
premise indicators: words that are typically followed by a premise. example: because, since, for, as, after all

26.
sound argument: a valid argument in which all of the premises are true

27.
statement: a declarative sentence that is either true or false

28.
strong argument: it is probable (but not necessary) that, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true

29.
substitution instance: an argument that results from uniformly replacing the variables in that form with statements (or terms)

30.
term: a word or phrase that stands for a class of things

31.
UA: explanatory statements: statements that provide a casual or other reason for some phenomenon

32.
UA: illustrations: statements together with explanatory or clarifying examples

33.
UA: reports: sets of statements intended to provide information about a situation, topic, event

34.
uncogent argument: one that is either weak or strong with at least one false premise

35.
unsound argument: either is invalid or has at least one false premise

36.
Unsupported assertions: passages that are not arguments

37.
valid: argument where it is is necessary that, if the premises are tru, then the clusion is true

38.
valid argument form: one in which every substitution instance is a valid argument

39.
weak argument: not probable that, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is true

40.
well-crafted: an argumetn that is stated in such a way that its important logical features are explicit

## Chapters one and two: Symbolic LogicStudy online at quizlet.com/_271m7 |