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What is the equation for rate reactions?

[(∆)Something changing]/[Change in(∆) time]

If a rxn rate is decreasing in concentration, what will the sign infront of the equation be?

-

If a rxn rate is increasing in concentration, what will the sign infront of the equation be?

+

What is the equation for rate laws?

rate=k[reactant]^m[reactant]^n; k is determined experimentally

Rate __/Rate __

2/1

What is the equation for solving for k?

K= rate/([react]^m[react]^n)

What is the equation for First-Order Reactions

rate= -∆[X]/∆t(←time) = k[X]^1

What is the equation for Second-Order Reactions

rate= -∆[X]/∆t(←time) = k[X]^2

What is the equation for Zero-Order Reactions

rate= k[react]^0 = k; [react] = -kt + [react]˅0

What is the equation for Third-Order Reactions

rate= k[X]^3

What two things need to be present for reactions to occur?

Collisions, Collisions with proper orientation

Define activation energy

Minimum energy required for collisions to be productive

When a bond is breaking, is it endo or exo, and is energy being given to or taken from the surroundings?

Endo, energy is given off to surroundings

When a bond is forming, is it endo or exo, and is energy being given to or taken from the surroundings?

Exo, energy taken from surroundings

On the reaction pathway, name the normal steps (A-E &Ea)

Step A = reactants, Step B = Activated complex, Ea, Step C = intermediate (more stable than B & D), Step D = activated complex, Ea, Step E = Products, Step Ea = Reverse, D, C, etc..

What directly influences rate constant?

Temperature

Why does k increase with increasing temperatures?(4 reasons)

1. Greater avg velocity & greater avg KE, 2. Increases in frequency of collisions, 3. Increase in number of collisions with proper orientation, 4. Increases number of collisions with sufficient energy

What is the Arrhenius equation?

k = Ae^(-Ea/RT); ln(k) = (-Ea/R)(1/T) + ln(A)

What does A mean in the Arrhenius equation

A is the frequency factor; frequency of collisions, fraction of collisions with proper orientation

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