Physical and chemical breakdown of rocks at or near the surface
The mechanical breakdown of rock into smaller pieces without a change in the mineral's composition
Water freezes in a crack of rock surface, expanding and splitting the rock. Alternate freezing and thawing form pot holes and frost heave.
Plants and animals
Plant roots force their way into cracks, and ____ expose rocks to the surface by digging.
Layers of rock peel off the main body of the rock
Alternating hot and cold weakens the rock as it expands and contracts
Pieces of rock collide with each other due to transportation by wind, ice, water, and gravity
The process by which chemicals breakdown rock through a change in its composition. Happens fastest in hot and moist climates
Occurs when oxygen from the air combines with iron-rich minerals of the rock. (Rust)
Occurs when water combines with carbon dioxide in the air to form carbonic acid.
Easily dissolves limestone and marble
Water combines with minerals such as mica and feldspar found in granite, to form clay, the rock weakens and crumbles apart.
Rate and type of weathering are dependent on exposure to air, water, and living things.
An increase in surface area increases the rate of weathering.
Rocks made of harder minerals weather slower than rocks made of softer minerals
Physical and chemical weathering are affected by this.
Physical weathering is dominant here
Chemical weathering is dominant here
As this goes by more weathering will occur
Excavation of land, minding, building, etc. affect rate of weathering because of these.
End product of weathering and biological activity
Soil is formed from the parent material and is of the same composition
Parent material has been carried from elsewhere and deposited. Soil is also a different composition than where it is found
Climates that have thin soils, high in mineral content, low in organic matter. (Grand canyons, plateaus)
Climates have thick soils, high in organic matter, low mineral content
Dead and decayed plant and animals add nutrients forming topsoil
The longer the weathering, the deeper the soil.
Transportation of sediments produced from weathered rock.
Primary driving force for all transporting agents.
Sediments that fall short distances so they have sharp edges.
Land slides, avalanches, mudflow, and slump.
Primary agent of erosion on earth.
Steeper the slope, the faster the water's velocity of this.
The more ___ the grater/faster the stream velocity
In a straight channel- water is fastest below the surface and in the center
The material a stream carries
Dissolved particles (ions)
So tiny that they take a very long time to settle. They tend to "hang" in the water (clay, silt, sand)
Larger sediments that are too big to be lifted so they bounce, roll, or are pushed along. (Abrasion is found when this happens)
Bends or curves in the river
When meanders "close off" and leave behind a horseshoe-shaped lake
Stream that has v-shaped valleys, rapids/waterfalls, steep slopes, no flood plains, and valleys are deepened
Stream where divides begin to round off, sediments build up, flood plain widens, and river begins to meander
A stream with very wide flood plains, land worn down to flat surface, pronounced river meanders, and oxbow lakes.
The area of land drained by one stream
Wind carries small sediments, occurs mainly in deserts and along coastlines. Looks pitted and frosted. Freckles.
Influenced by water depth, energy from winds/storms, and shape of shoreline.
Because waves strike the shore at an angle, the water near shore is pushed in one direction along the shore causing this. Sediments are carried in the same direction as the current
Mass of ice and snow. These are influenced by accumulation of ice and snow. Looks like there are scratches and grooves. Sediments are very unsorted. Form U-shaped valleys
Process by which sediments are released, settled from or dropped from an erosional system. It occurs when the stream velocity decreases
Sediment that is found at the base of a hill or mountain. Unsorted.
Cause of running water and wave action. Build up of sediment from wave action
Fan shaped deposit of sediment at the mouth of a river
Deposition takes place on the side of the grain that the long-shore current is coming from
Occurs when a stream enters a lake; as kinetic energy decreases, the large, rounder, high density sediments are deposited near the mouth of the stream.
From wind. The gentle slope faces the direction the wind came from.
Diagonal sand deposits caused varying wind direction and velocity
Unsorted sediment deposited by a glacier
Till found along the sides or leading edge of a glacier
Elongated hills sculpted by a glacier's retreat; they indicate the glacier's flow.
Long winding ridges of sand and gravel typically oriented parallel to ice flow. They were deposited by glacial melt water, in, on, or beneath the ice
Mounds or hills are created when drift fill a hole in a glacier. When the glacier recedes the mound is left behind
Formed when large blocks of ice break from the face of the glacier and are buried in sediment. when these blocks melt, they leave circular depressions.
Large boulders that were deposited when the glacier melted
Melted water that washes out from under the glacier carrying sediments. Sorting will occur with a decrease in velocity.
Rocks into smaller particles.
Very small solid particles that are too small to be seen with an ordinary microscope, and too light to settle in water. Even in calm water they will stay suspended.
Combination of weathered rock and organic matter.
Decayed plant and animal material found in soil.
Smaller streams which flow into larger streams and rivers.
Ridge or section of a high ground between drainage basins