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An apparent, although false, association between two variables that is caused by some third variable is called

A spurious correlation

The ideal of objectivity means that a researcher

must try to adopt a stance of personal neutrality toward the outcome of the research

Imagine that you are repeating research done by someone else in order to assess its accuracy. You are doing which of the following?

Replication

The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society is referred to as

non-material culture

Sociologists define a symbol as

anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture

Cultural transmission refers to the process of

passing cultural patterns from one generation to another

Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?

People see the world through the cultural lens of their language

Standards by which people who share culture define what is desirable, good, and beautiful are called

values

The dominant values of US culture share which of the following

A belief in individuality

___________distinguish between right and wrong;________ distinguish between right and rude.

1) Mores
2) Folkways

Which discipline defines itself as the "sympathetic study of human society"

Sociology

According to Emile Durkheim, a category of people with a higher suicide rate typically has

lower social integration

The term "sociology" was coined in 1838 by

Auguste Comte

Social structures sometimes have negative consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these negative consequences?

Social dysfunctions

Unrecognized and unintended consequences of a social pattern are called

Latent functions

The main characteristic of the _________ approach is its view of society as orderly and stable

Structural Functional

Sociologists use the term "empirical evidence" to refer to

information we can verify with our senses

Which of the following terms is defined in the text as "a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a somewhat simplified form"

Concept

Imagine that you are going to measure the age of a number of respondents taking part in a survey. As you record the data, your are using the concept "age" as

a Variable

In the process of measurement, reliability refers to

whether repeating the measurement yields consistent results

Marx described alienation as involving which of the following?

All of the above

Max Weber's analysis of the rise of capitalism provides strong evidence of

the power of the idea to change society

Max Weber described the features of rational social organization pointing to all but one of the following. Which is NOT part of this analysis?

People in the workplace share highly personal relationships

Which of the following concepts were used by Durkhiem to name a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals

anomie

Durkheim explained that organic solidarity is based on

specialization and interdependence

If you were to hear a sociologist speaking of class conflict as the "engine of history", which of the following would it most likely be?

Karl Marx

Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg's research, showing that

Girls and boys typically asses situations as right and wrong using different standards

When Cooley used the conept "looking glass self", he meant to say that

people see themselves as they think others see them

According to Mead, children learn to take the role of the other as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these people as

significant others

Family is important to the socialization process because

All of the above are correct

Below is a list of traits linked to a total institution; all but one are correct. Which one is NOT correct?

Staff members encourage the individual growth and creativity of inmates

Sociologists use what concept to refer to behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status

role

Which of the following is involved when a surgeon chooses not to operate on her own son because the personal involvement of motherhood could impair her professional objectivity as a physician

role conflict

The Thomas theorem states that

situations defined as real are real in their consequences

What does the term "presentation of self" mean?

efforts to create impressions in the minds of others

Which of the following might be a part of the classroom performance of a professor

All of the above are correct

The careful observer can notice clues indicating that someone is telling a lie. People give off these clues because

nonverbal communication is hard for most people to control

In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to "save face", or avoid embarrassment is

tact

The English language often treats as _________ whatever has greater value, power, or importance.

masculine

When interacting with people of an unfamiliar cultural background

what is funny to people in one society may not be funny to people in another society

The concept "retrospective lableing" refers to the process of

Interpreting someone's past consistant with present deviance

Travis Hirschi's control theory suggests which of the following categories of people would be most likely to engage in deviance

youngster's who "hang out" waiting for something to happen

Using Marxist approach, Steven Spitzer claims that prime targets for deviant labeling include

All of the above

Organized crime refers to

any business that supplies illegal drugs or services

The degree of status consistency is

greater in caste than class systems

At the lowest level of social stratification in acient Japan were the

Burakumin or "outcasts"

Who coined the concept survival of the fittest

Herbert Spencer

Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes; by contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of

a socioeconomic status hierarchy

To impress her friends, Laura wears an expensive dress to a party. A sociologist might say she is engaging in

Conspicuous consumption

Which of the following types of societies comes closest to being egalitarian?

hunting and gathering

What is the term for a group leadership that emphasizes the completion of task

instrumental leadership

Which of the following statements is consistent with the findings of Solomon Asch?

Many people are willing to compromise their own judgement to avoid being seen as different by others

Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator", showed

People are suprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals

What is Robert Merton's terms for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals

bureaucratic ritualism

The basic idea behind scientific managment is that

applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient

During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United states by being

more collective in their orientation

Read the four statements below. Which of them is NOT evidence of the process called the "Mcdonalization of Society"?

Many new jobs demand creativity and imagination

Using the terms in Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical activist who rejects just about everything in the existing society in favor of some alternative system?

Rebel

Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as

a passing episode that has little effect on the person's self-concept

What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity?

Sigma

As a social institution, the economy

All of the above are correct

The postindustrial economy is defined by

service work and computer technology

Which of the following statements about the Information Revolution is NOT correct

There was a shift from farming to turning raw materials into products

Turning metals into automobiles is work that falls within the

secondary sector

The United States is a mostly capitalist nation because

The vast majority of productive businesses are privatly owned

In a socialist economic system, "justice" amounts to

trying to meet the basic needs of all in a equal manner

What is the hypothetical economic and political system in which all people in society are socially equal

communism

Read the four descriptions below. Which of them DOES NOT apply to a profession?

working for a large, well-established company

Which of the following would be included in the operation of the underground economy

a taxi driver who fails to report most of her income

The concept oligopoly refers to

domniation of a market by a few companies

Polytheism refers to

belief in many gods

The worlds largest concentration of Jews (6 million) is found in

North America

Which of the following if the oldest of the world religions discussed in the text

Hinduism

The concept karma refers to

the hindu belief in the progress of the human soul

The founder of Buddhism was which of the following people

Siddhartha Guatama

In general, compared to Eastern religions, Western religions

are deity based

Secularization refers to which of the following

The historical decline in the importance of the sacred

Read the four statements below. Which of the four is NOT a trait of religious fundamentalism?

interpreting religious texts literally

Which of the following nations stands out as the most religious of all high income countries

The United States

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