ch. 17 Questioned Documents

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Any object that contains handwriting or typescript and whose souce or authenticity is in doubt is referred to as an_______

Questioned Document

T/F: Our general style of handwriting develops as a result of our attempts in childhood to copy letters that match a standard form or style shown to us by out teachers.

True

T/F: Variations in mechanical, physical, and mental functions make it unlikely that the writing of two individuals can be distinguished.

False

In a problem involving the authorship of handwriting, all characteristics of both the _______ and ________ documents must be considered and compared.

Known and Questioned

T/F: A single handwriting characteristic can by itself be taken as a basis for a positive comparison

False

Handwriting examples may have crude, unnatural form or be written vary carefully to disguise the writer's natural_____

Style

Known as examples of writings, called_____, must be collected in order to determining the outcome of a comparison

Exemplars

As the age difference between genuine and unknown specimens becomes greater, the standard tends to become_________ representative of the unknown

Less

T/F: Two or more specimens of writing prepared by one person are identical in every detail.

False

In the supreme court case of ________ the court upheld the taking of handwriting exemplars before the appointment of counsel and determined handwriting to be non testimonial evidence not protected by Fifth Amendment privileges.

Gilbert v. California

T/F: Normally, known writings need not contain words and combinations of letters present in the questioned document

False

When requested writing is being given by a suspect, care must be taken to minimize ________ writing effort

Conscious

An exemplar should generate approximately ________ samples through a questioned photocopies, printer, or fax machine to obtain a sufficient representation of a machine's characteristics.

ten

A fax machine prints a kind of header known as a ______ at the top of each page it prints, which can be used for comparison and authentication purposes

Transmitting Terminal Identifier (TTI)

Examination of a printer's _______ involves microscopic analysis and the identification of organic and inorganic components.

Toner

Random wear and damage to a typewriter impart it with ________ characteristics

Individual

Examination of a document uner ______ or ______ lighting may reveal chemical erasures of words or numbers.

Ultraviolet, Infrared

Some inks, when exposed to blue-green light, absorb the radiation and emit _______ light.

Infrared

Handwriting containing inks of different chemical compositions may be distinguished by photography with _______ film

Infrared

T/F: If obliteration of writing is carried out with he same ink as was used t write the original material, recovery will be difficult if not impossible.

True

Infrared photography can also be used to visualize writing on paper that has been accidentally or purposely _______ in a fire.

Charred

_________ writings are partially visible impressions appearing on a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing was done.

Indented

When comparing the chemical composition of ink lines on a questioned document, a ________ can be used without destroying the document.

Microspectrophotometer

Many ink dyes can be separated by the technique of __________ chromatography

Thin-Layer

T/F: Examination of the paper of a questioned document is based on general appearance, color, weight, and watermarks.

True

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