Unit 3 continued.

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core

center of economic activity

periphery

outlying region of econimic activity.

religion

the faithfulness to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involce a faith in a spiritual nature. this is important to HG because man wars have been fought over it.

Hinduism

created in India, appriximately one billion followers. Unlike other religions, heave isn't always the ultimate goal in llife. Third largest in world behind Christianity and Islam. Talk about Karma(what goes around comes around). important to HG because such a large number of people follwer the religon and it's unlike any other one.

Interfaith boundaries

the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. This isn't the same as Intrafaith boundaries which describes the boundaries within a major religion. This is important to HG because it separates different groups of people for different reasons.

Islam

It means the submission to the will of god. Its a monotheistic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad, a key religious figure. It is the second largest religion in the world. This is important to HG because it has impacted the world greatly, especially boundaries.

Jainism

religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality throughout all life. It affects HG because a lot of people believe in it in India.

Judaism

is the religion of ancient Hebrews, said to be one of the first monotheistic faiths. This is important to HG because many other religions have been based off it.

Landscapes of the dead

certain areas where people have commonly been buried. This is important to HG because it has always been important where people are buried.

Monothesism/polytheism

Monotheism this is the belief in one god and polytheism is the belief in many gods. This affects HG because many religions spread throughout the world fall under these two categories.

Mormonism

a term used to describe religious, ideological, and cultural aspects of the various denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement. It is important because a lot of people around the world practice Mormonism.

Muslim Pilgrimage

If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Makkah. (Mecca) They usually make the trip around Ramadan. This pilgrimage is also referred to as Hajj. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.

Muslim population

: It is the religion of 1.3 billion people in the world. It is the predominant religion of the Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia. Half of the world's Muslims live in four countries outside the Middle East: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. It is important because Islam is one of the most popular religions practiced around the world.

Proselytic Religion

Referred to as a Universalizing Religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location. There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. This important to HG because these are three of the biggest religions in the world they are practiced all over the world.

Reincarnation

The idea that after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human life. So basically what you do in this life will affect what your next life is like. This is commonly practiced by the Buddhists and the Hindus. This is important to HG because these two religions are very important in the world.

Religion(groups, places)

One group is universalizing religions. These are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. All of these have different branches. There's also ethnic religions, such as, Hinduism, Daoism, and Confucianism. These religions are spread out throughout the world. This affects HG because all regions throughout the world have a general religion.

Religious architectural styles

These are the styles of architecture created by the religions. For example, Christians have always made temples, and Buddhists have always made a lot of religious statues. This is important to HG because these styles affected most of the future styles for other civilizations.

Religious conflict

this is the conflicts between religions. One of these is Israel-Palestine. This consists of Roman Takeovers, Muslim conquests, and the crusades. This affects HG because there has been a lot of bloodshed over Religious Conflict.

Religious Culture Hearth

This is where most religions are born. Most major religions have come from the Middle East near Israel, but a few have come from India too. This is important to HG because where religions are created, civilizations are too.

Religious toponym

This refers to the origin and meaning of the names of religions. This is important to HG because many names mean significant things including beliefs of cultures.

Sacred space

The place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies. This is important to HG because a lot of history has taken place here.

Secularism

This is the belief that humans should be based on facts and not religious beliefs. This is important to HG because this has caused conflicts in a lot of different places including politics.

Shamanism

This is the range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people. This is important to HG because it is thought as good and bad.

Sharia law

it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles. This is important to HG because it affects many people around Muslims around the world.

Shintoism

said to be the way of god. It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worship of kami (a god). Not very significant anymore and lost importance to today. This is important to HG because before WWII it was very popular and affected a lot of people in Japan.

Sikhism

is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India . The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū. Emphasizes faith in god. This is important to HG because its another minor religion in India that affects a lot of people.

Adaptive strategies

The unique way in which each culture uses it's particular physical environment; Those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life - Food, clothing, shelter, and defense

Anglo-American landscape characteristics

distinguished by a set of cultural traits like language, beliefs, customs, norms of behavior, social institutions, way of life, artifacts etc.

Architectural form

the difference in architectural preference, mainly housing, based on social, economic, cultural and environmental factors

Built environment

refers to the man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to the personal places.

Folk culture

Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups ;refers to the lifestyle of a culture. Historically, handed down through oral tradition, it demonstrates the "old ways" over novelty and relates to a sense of community. It is quite often imbued with a sense of place. If elements of this culture is copied by, or moved to, a foreign locale, they will still carry strong connotations of their original place of creation

folk food

every traditional society has its own particular regional food choices

folk house

a house that is traditionally dwelled by the common people of a region

folk songs

songs belonging to the folk music of a group of people or area, has many versions which vary from region to region

folklore

legends, tales, and knowledge, often about nature and usually oral, developed by a society over time and repeated to successive generations

material culture

The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people

nonmaterial culture

The beliefs, practices, aesthics, and values of a group of people

popular culture

Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differances in other personal characteristics

survey systems

it is a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels, particularly for rural land, and wild or undeveloped land

traditional architecture

a term used to categorize methods of construction which use locally available resources to address local needs

creole

A person of European descent born in the West Indies or Spanish America;A person descended from or culturally related to the original French settlers of the southern United States, especially Louisiana;The French dialect spoken by these people

dialect

A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists;A variety of language that with other varieties constitutes a single language of which no single variety is standard

indo-european languages

Indo-European: the family of languages that by 1000 BC were spoken throughout Europe and in parts of southwestern and southern Asia

isogloss

An isogloss (sometimes called heterogloss) is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature

language

a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols

language family

A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family

language group

...

language subfamily

...

lingua franca

a common language used by speakers of different languages;

linguistic diversity

The nearly 6000 languages still spoken (many barely existing) today are now being threatened by economic, technological and ideological globalization

monolingual

Using or knowing only one language

multilingual

using or knowing more than one language;Of, including, or expressed in several languages

official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

pidgin

A simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages, has a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary, is used for communication between groups speaking different languages, and is not spoken as a first or native language

toponymy

The place names of a region or language

trade language

A language, especially a pidgin, used by speakers of different native languages for communication in commercial trade.

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