SOC 101 FINAL EXAM

149 terms by theliztaylor

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

RELIGION

A social institution that expresses belief in a divine power through social common practices, traditions, and symbols.

SACRED

Extrordinary things that inspire feelings of respect. Ex. Faceing Mecca to pray, Ju-Yarmuke (yamaka).

PROFANE

Ordinary, commonly understood routine activities that people take for granted. Ex. Wearing hats.

ANIMATISM

Beliefs in which paranormal forces rather than beings (gods or spirits) are the dominant power in the universe. Ex. The belief that spirits are present in animals, plants, and other natural objects

ANIMISM

Belief in spirit beings that inhabit the same world as humans but on another plane of existence.

THEISM

Belief that one or more gods exist and they are involved in world affairs. Ex. Monotheistic, Christianity, Islam, Judaisim.

POLYTHEISM

Believing in many Gods.

MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS

Believing in one God. Ex: Islam, Christianity, Judaism

ETHICAL RELIGIONS

Philosophical ideals of attaining harmony in personal life and in society. Ex. Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism.

ECCLESIA

A religious organization body that is more politically and socially accepted. Church and state are united. Ex. Vatican, Catholic pre-reform, Saudi Arabia (Koran).

DENOMINATION

The sub-groups of organized religion such as baptists, methodists, and presbetraian.

SECT

A small, less formally organized religious group that usually has separated from a denomination and is in a negative tension with the larger society. Ex. West Side Baptist Church.

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT

Religions created on a whim by throwing around ideas. Ex. Kaballah.

POWER

The ability to realize ones will even against the resistance and opposition of others.

POLITICS

A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS

Relatively enduring social arrangements that distribute and exercise power.

GOVERNMENTS

People and organizations that formulate and implement public policy.

COERCION

The actualization of a threat.

AUTHORITY

A form of legitimate power that has widespread social approval and is obeyed because people believe that those who exercise it have a right to do so.

TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY

A form of authority based on custom and habit, which has its roots in the distant past and often is religiously sanctioned.

LEGAL- RATIONAL AUTHORITY

Authority based on explicit rules, regulations, and procedures that define who holds power and how power is to be exercised and distributed.

CHARISMATIC AUTHORITY

Authority based on unique personal qualities, which include the ability to excite and inspire followers.

EXPERTISE

A form of authority derived from the possession of specialized knowledge.

INFLUENCE

The ability to affect the behavior of others through persuasion, rewards, inducements, and appeals to reason.

PROPAGANDA

The communication of facts, ideas, and opinions not for the audiences sake but to benefit the communicator.

NATION-STATES

Governments that have a unified administrative reach across large territories over which sovereignty is claimed.

POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Rules and policies that determine the organization, exercise, and transfer of government decision- making power.

AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES

Power is concentrated in the hands of a single leader, or, more commonly, is monopolized by a small elite ( an oligarchy) who govern without constitutional limits and who recognize a responsibility only to themselves, rather than to the general public.

DICTATORSHIP

A political system of arbitrary rule by a single individual.

OLIGARCHIES

A small group of elites who wield power and are accountable only to themselves.

TOTALITARIAN REGIMES

They seek to regulate all aspects of peoples lives and transform individuals and societies in the name of some utopian vision.

DEMOCRACY

A political system based on popular participation in decision making, where ultimate authority is vested in the people.

DEMOGRAPHY

The scientific study of the size, composition, distribution, and changes in human population.

FERTILITY

The extent of reproduction in a society.

MORTALITY

Death

CRUDE BIRTHRATE

The number of live births per year for every 1,000 people in a specific population.

CRUDE DEATH RATE

The number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people in a specific population.

MIGRATION

Population movement across political boundaries.

MIGRATION RATE

The number of emigrants ( people leaving a country) subtracted from the number of immigrants ( those entering it) per 1,000 population.

COMPOSITION OF A POPULATION

The numbers and types of people, classified by characteristics such as age, sex, race, and ethnicity.

POPULATION DENSITY

How a population is dispersed geographically (e. g., the number of people per square mile).

SEX RATIO

The number of males per 100 females.

GROWTH RATE

The difference between the numbers of people added to and subtracted from a particular population.

DOUBLING TIME

The number of years it takes for a population to double in size.

ZERO POPULATION GROWTH ( ZPG)

An organization dedicated to reaching the population replacement level of approximately two children per family.

DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY

Population growth develops through three distinct stages: (1) high birth and death rates (2) high birthrates and low death rates (3) low birth and death rates

BABY BOOMERS

The age cohort in the United States comprising those born roughly between 1945 and 1964.

conspicuous consumption

Consumers desire to express their social standing by acquiring goods and services simply for the purposes of having, displaying, and consuming them.

Capitalism

An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and goods and services are distributed competitively for profit.

socialism

An economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state and goods and services are distributed as a cooperative enterprise without regard to personal profit.

work as a social role

Just as norms govern our actions when we perform the roles of women or men, mothers or fathers, and friends or neighbors, they also accompany our occupational roles. Occupational roles, or the expectations that accompany a particular job, must be learned through socialization.

Enomic systems, especially capitalism, are driven by power, greed, unfair competition, and exploitation of the masses (workers who both produce and consume the goods and services) by the elites ( who control the capital, own the means of production, and reap the profits from the labor and consumption of the masses).

conflict perspective of economy

ideological support for capitalism, consumerism, affluence, and conspicuous consumption.

latent functions of advertising

VC: vital social institution to produce needed goods and services. MF: production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. F:strong economy contributes to the overall functioning of society it provides maintenance of social classes. Dsy: runaway inflation, recession or depression, and high rates of unemployment. LF: rewards people who are already rich and places burden on those who were born in poverty.

functionalist perspective of economy

Mixed Economy

Combines central elements of capitalism and socialism and allows private ownership and free enterprise to compete with businesses, industries, and services owned and operated by the state.

Schools as bureaucracies

perpetuates social inequities, hidden curriculum (learning values that keep the elite elite), and credentialism (requiring more education)

increase in cohabition, increase age of marriage, increase age of children, increase in same sex marriage, increase in step familys, increase in single mom home

Changes in the family

1. HOMOGAMY: The selection of a mate with personal and social characteristics similar to ones own.
2. HETEROGAMY: Theory of Complimentary needs- The selection of a mate with social characteristics different than ones own.
3. Sociobiology: The more attractive phenotype will contribute more offspring to the population so their alleles will increase the likelyhood in the gene pool.
4. Matching Hypothesis: The idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.

4 Mate Selection Theories

4 Types of marriage

Monogamy=husband and wife. Serial monogamy a marriage pattern in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time. Polygamy: Polyandry = where one woman marries two or more men, is practiced by only a few societies. Polygyny= 1 man marries two or more women.

Power and authority in family (3 ways)

Patriarchy (the father rules the family), Matriarchy(mother rules the family), and Equalitarian (authority is evenly shared)

Sociology

The systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society.

1. Size: the bigger the group the more you slack 2. Leadership: gives the group a controlled structure 3. Conformity: there are intense pressures on individuals to conform.

Factors affecting small group dynamics (3 Dynamic Factors of Small Groups)

Free Radical theory

The number of free radicals can be reduced by the use of antioxidants (vitamins, carotenoids, selenium, and phytochemicals)

Life expectancy

How long, on average, an individual is expected to live.

Continuity theory

People need to maintian their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem.

FICA

a tax on employees and employers that is used to fund the Social Security system. Federal Insurance Contributions Act

Extended Family

a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives

Nuclear Family

Parents and their children who live apart from other kin. OR family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner

Life chances

Max Weber's term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care

Prompt Income, occupation, education that describes a family's standing in society- graded on 4 factors: Income-Occupation-Address (location)-Education

SES

4 Types of Social Stratification

1. Cast- born into -
2. Slaves- freedom is the only way to escape it-
3. Estate- land ownership- you can get more by marriage or death inherit-
4. Class- money

stratification systems

Statuses are major way stratification occurs.
Ascribed - Societal roles assigned based on ascribed status. Produces caste/estate system.
Achieved - produces class system

Social control

The ability of society and its institutions to control, manage, restrain, or direct human behavior.

1. Voluntary (internalization of social norms)- 2. Informal (someone/anyone without authority)- 3. Formal (someone with authority)

3 ways society controls the behavior of of its members

Range of tolerance

The level of deviance in which a society is willing to tolerate.

Subjectiveness of Deviance

Who, where, time, subculture context (folkways)??

Subcultures

Groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles.

Cooley's Looking Glass Self

concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction.

Adult socialization

There are three ways that socialization occurs as we assume the adult roles...

1. reverse socialization (learning slag, music, clothing styles),
2. desocialization (unlearning),
3. re-socialization (learning a different set of norms, values, beliefs and behavors).

Cultural Lag

Inconsistencies in a cultural system, especially in the relationship between technology and nonmaterial culture.

Socialization

A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.

Triangulation

The use of multiple ( usually three) techniques to gather or analyze research data.

1. Statement of the Problem.
2. Review of the Literature.
3. Development of Hypotheses
4. Choice of Research Design.
5. Data Collection
6. Data Analysis and Interpretation
7. Development of Conclusion

Steps of Scientific Method

Quantitative Research

A research design that emphasizes the use of numbers and statistics to analyze and explain social events and human behavior. ie polls and surveys using highly precise scientific sampling methods

Qualitative Research

Based on nonnumberical information (text, written words, phrases, symbols, observations) that describes people, actions, or events in social life.

1. Auguste Comte ( 1798 1857) coined the term sociology and launched the positivistic approach to the study of sociology.
2. Herbert Spencer, (1820), "social analyst" (study observe understand just don't interfere)
3. Karl Marx ( 1818 1883) as the founder of the conflict perspective in sociology although his academic training was in history, economics, and philosophy.
4. Emile Durkheim (1858 1917) with his emphasis on social structure and social solidarity provided a strong theoretical basis for the functionalist perspective in sociology.
5. Max Weber (1864 1920), Perhaps no early sociologist had a more powerful influence on the study of social interactionism

Founders of Sociology

All human societies can be grouped into six types based on their technologies and social lives: hunting-gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agrarian, indus-trial, and postindustrial.

stages of Sociocultural evolution

Sociology is the systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups, and society. It is based on the sociological imagination, which allows us to locate ourselves within a larger social context. It helps us to recognize the general in the particular and the strange in the familiar as well as to distinguish between personal troubles and social issues. An important aspect of sociological thinking is the ability to understand the significance of globalization while also recognizing the importance of diversity in human society

Sociology and sociological imagination
society.

Theory Building process

basic part of any scientific process. In sociological analysis, theory-building requires critical thinking that involves both inductive and deductive reasoning.

Operational definitions

A definition that specifies how a concept is measured.

Spurious relationships

patterns of statistical but meaningless occurrence

1. Universal
2. Cumulative
3. Learned
4. Shared

4 characteristics of culture

ETHNOCENTRISM judging another cultures based off your own WHERE AS CULTURAL RELATIVISM A perspective which asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours.

ethnocentrism and cultural relativism

relativist fallacy

Viewing all cultural practices as being equally valid and worthy of respect.
EX:in its most extreme form it would treat even the most severe social pathologies, such as Nazi gas chambers and apartheid in South Africa, as legitimate cultural practices.

social structure

the ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction:
1. Status - Occupation
2. Roles
3. Social Network - Web groups you belong to.
4. Social Institutions

1. Specialization and Division of Labor.
2. Hierarchical Structure.
3. Formal Rules, Regulations, and Procedures.
4. Impersonality.
5. Merit and Careers.

Bureaucracies (Five basic characteristics of organizational bureaucracies)

ETHICAL

Persuit of truth and knowledge to obtain enlightenment.

SYMBOLS

Represent sacred. Religious belief symbols.

RITUAL

Events/actions to focus on sacred.

RITES OF PASSAGE

Bar Mitzrah ritual that brings a person to a new stage of religious life.

VC - We need answers to "BIG" questions.
(+) F - Unity (common belief/practice)
(-) Dys - War, genocide.
MF - Emotional comfort/support moral enforcer. After life assurance.
LF - (-) New religious movements.
(+) Social services, time keeping, intergenerational connections.

FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE ON RELIGION (Durkheim)

"The opiate of the masses." Rel - Tool to control oppressed, elite use religion as a reason/way to keep oppressed at the bottom.
Ex. Osoma Bin Ladin (up)
Sucide Bombers (down)

CONFLICT (Marx)

PROTESTANT WORK ETHIC (Weber)

Representation of a nation through holidays, myths, and other traditions, that encompasses the overall culture and is associates with divinity.
Ex. Presidents Day, God Bless America, Mouth Rushmore, Ground Zero, Liberty Bell, "Founding Fathers."

MEDICINE

Religion used to be replaced by hospitals/medicine.

VC - We want a scientific answer for death and disease.
MF - Preventions and cures. Up's life expectancy.
F - Industry, productive society.
Dys - Mal practice, ethical issues.
LF - Up's population, pill popping society, plastic surgery, attitudes about death. shift in faith.

FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE ON MEDICINE

- Acknowledge the label.
- Must try to get better.
- Comply with medical authority.
- Excused from normal activities.

PARSONS SICK ROLE

Unequal distribution by social class (SES), ethnicity, gender, and global. Medicalizaton of birth, death, aging, and deviance.

CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE OF ECONOMY

MEDICARE

Federally created for 65+. (1965)

MEDICAID

Federally created for people in need. (1965)

POPULATION (Demographics)

World - 6.5 billion
US - 300 million
China - 1 billion
India - 1 billion

Fertility, mortality , migration.
Fertility - Marriage, healthy, social factors ie. religion, culture, economy, family, medicine.
Mortality - Degenerative diseases, communicable diseases.
Migration - emigration = leave
immigration = come in
Push/Pull Factors ----> Jobs/Economy, education, climate, political, religion, medical, and family.

WHAT AFFECTS POPULATION

Occupational Subcultures

Where co-workers share common values, norms, and attitudes not only toward their work but also life in general.As a result, the members of a particular occupational subculture often spend most of their off the job time with others in the same line of work.

CULTURAL PLURALISM

When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.

ethnicity

refers to statuses based on cultural heritage and shared feelings of peoplehood Example: Americans, Mexicans, Asians

Minority Groups

A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics.
Example: Religious groups, people with disabilities, the elderly, and others, race and ethnicity are particularly important minority statuses. religious groups, people with disabilities, the elderly, and others, race and ethnicity are particularly important minority statuses.

(1) identifiability;
(2) membership based on ascription;
(3) group awareness;
(4) differential power;
(5) differential and unequal treatment.

Sociologists have identified five basic qualities of racial and ethnic minority groups including:

RACE

Races are categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics. Example skin color, hair texture, and other incidental biological traits and transform them into significant symbols of purported racial differences.

GENDER IDENTITY

Acknowledging ones sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations.

GENOCIDE

Deliberate and systematic elimination of minority group members.

SEGREGATION

Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities.

What are scapegoats and think of current global example

a weak, convenient, and socially approved target. If people cannot pinpoint the source of their problems, or if they discover the source is too powerful to challenge, they may direct their anger at a scapegoat. Historically, scapegoats (usually minorities) have shouldered the blame and have paid terrible penalties for causing society ills.
For example: __________

ANDROGYNY

A blending of masculine and feminine attributes.

ASSIMILATION

A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.
Example: The part in Outliners when Korea were forced to be trained to communicate in English because collectivist culture communicate differently to people in authority.

Prejudice refers to preconceived judgments toward a category of people, whereas discrimination is the unequal treatment of people because of their group membership.

Compare and contracts prejudice and discrimination

CULTURAL TRANSMISSION

The process by which culture is passed from one generation to the next.

Prompt ENDOGAMY are norms that require people to find mates within a specific group or social category. WHERE AS EXOGAMY- is a norm that requires people to find marriage partners outside their own group or social category.
Societies that need to gain access to scarce goods or social and political networks beyond their immediate borders often practice exogamy, which is a norm that requires people to find marriage partners outside their own group or social category. Societies that wish to retain power, prestige, or property within groups usually take the opposite approach, establishing norms that require people to find mates within a specific group or social category, a pattern called endogamy. Because of social stratification, most societies exert strong pressures to marry within ones class as well as Families racial, ethnic, and religious group. In the United States, exogamy continues to be rare for African Americans because of socially constructed boundaries between black and white Americans. Low socioeconomic status and geo-graphic concentration help perpetuate endogamy among Cajuns in Louisiana as well.

What is the difference between Exogamy and Endogamy?

EXTENDED FAMILY

Two or more closely related families who share a household and are economically and emotionally bound to others in the group.

GENDER

Cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society.

INTEGRATION

Bringing together people from diverse social backgrounds so that they share common social experiences and develop commonly held norms, attitudes, and beliefs.

KINSHIP GROUP

A network of people whose social relationships are based on common ancestry (blood), marriage, adoption, and/ or affiliation (e. g., godparents).

MONOGAMY is one woman and one man married. SERIAL MONOGAMY is when a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MONOGAMY AND SERIAL MONOGAMY

In most industrial societies the only socially acceptable and legal form of marriage is monogamy the marriage of one woman and one man. In America and many other industrialized countries, with high divorce rates, how-ever, a large part of the population practices serial monogamy a marriage pattern in which a person has several spouses over a lifetime, but only one at a time.

Whats the difference between Monogamy and Polygamy

2 Variants in for Polygamy

1. Polyandry where one woman marries two or more men, is practiced by only a few societies;
2. Polygyny, where a man marries two or more women, is the most common marital pattern throughout the preindustrial world. There are numerous other forms of marriage that are historically rare, including group marriage, where two or more husbands have two or more wives, and same- sex marriages.

NUCLEAR FAMILY

1 or 2 parents and there unmarried off spring.
Parents and their children who live apart from other kin.

SEX

Biological and physical differences between females and males.

Sexual orientation

Refers to the choice of sexual partners and consists of heterosexuality ( partners of the opposite sex), homosexuality ( same- sex partners), and bisexuality ( partners of both sexes).

Conflict Perceptive on Gender

Gender roles are based on cultural tradition and are taught and
reinforced by those in power. In the case of gender roles, men have enjoyed numerous economic, political, and social advantages, and they have a vested interest in keeping women in a subordinate role. Continued domination by males requires a belief system that supports gender inequality.
Two beliefs
1. Women are inferior outside the home.
2. Women are more valuable in the home.

Conflict theorists point out that although mass education is emphasized and has the potential to promote equality, in both capitalist and socialist societies the educational institution promotes and perpetuates inequality. This analysis focuses on unequal access to schooling and inequality among schools, schools hidden curriculum, how educational credentials enable schools to act as screening devices for society, and the link between educational attainment and unequal occupational opportunities.

Conflict Perspective on Education

Conflict Perspective on faimily

Strug- struggle for wealth, power, and prestige.
MSB-Men advance their interests and privileges at the expense of women and children.

VC: gradual decline until death
F: Relief of social pressures faced by younger adult. They can retire (stop doing stuff they can't or no longer want to do)
Dsy: Social disengagement. Cut themselves off from socialization.
MF: The old are replaced by the new. Opens jobs for younger adults.
LF: Failures to regains the diversity among the aged population.

Functional perspective on Aging

VC: The family is fundamental for society
F: Providing economic support and physical protection.
Dys: You can't change the family that you belong to.
MF: Family provides socialization
LF: Can cause deviate from normative expectations or produce instability "failure to launch"

Functionalist perceptive of Family

VC: Education is the foundation to socialization. Most likely it is the most vital social institution for society.
F: In general, it teaches literacy and informed society (self-governing) and anticipatory socialization (teaching the knowledge and skills necessary for the successful fulfillment of future roles and statuses).
Dsy: Beyond the elementary and secondary levels, unequal access to higher educational opportunities resurfaces as a major issue.
MF: an equal opportunity and facilitates achievement.
LF: Delays entry into the labor market and isolates peer groups.
"One of the latent functions of elementary schools in the United States is that they serve as one of the largest day- care systems in the world."

Functionalist Prospective on Education

EDUCATION

The institutionalized process of systematically teaching certain cognitive skills and knowledge and transmitting them from one generation to the next.

VC - Males and Females are different, and are expected to behave according to their assigned gender.
F: The function to bind men and women together into a family unit, solidifying the structure of the family; that, in turn, contributes to the overall functioning of society.
Dys: Gender categorizing everybody all the time limits human potential
MF: Women give birth and nurse a child, it is natural that they will take care of it in other ways
LF: Hormone imbalance may produce a hermaphrodite, a child born with some combination of male and female genitalia

Functionalists perspective on gender

Gender and gender roles are learned through socialization process.
Women are socialized into expressive roles; men are socialized into instrumental roles.
Men are more likely than women to:Change topics of conversation
Ignore topics chosen by women
Minimize ideas of women
Interrupt women

Interactionist perspective on gender

SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE

Views social meaning as arising through the process of social interaction ( often referred to as interactionism).

Symbols (Crosses), Language, Values (Commonly held standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong, workable or unworkable, etc.)

3 components of culture

Dehumanization "iron cage", ritualisim "that's not my job", promoting people that aren't qualified "peter principal".

Problems With
Bureaucracies

1. Attacked
2. Alliances/Allies
3. Threat to our "way of life".
4. Protection of the "innocent".
5. Premption (Pre-strike. You think something is going to happen.)
6. Clear Enemy
Grow and Strike = War Support

6 REASONS Norms, Values, and Beliefs of War

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set