Health Wellness and Nutrition

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Which of the following is a micronutrient?
Your Answer:

vitamins

________ refers to eating the right proportion of foods.

balance

Aim for fitness, build a healthy base, and choose sensibly are general directives of:

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the science of nutrition?

As compared to many other scientific disciplines, nutrition is a young science.
Discoveries by the first nutritional scientists established the connection between deficiencies and illness.
In developed countries, current research in nutrition focuses on the relationship between diet and chronic diseases.
All of these are true.

The foods that are found at the very top of the Food Guide Pyramid include:

fats, oils, and sweets

The DASH diet recommends:

both 8-10 servings of fruits and vegetables per day and moderate sodium intake.

Cell membranes are PRIMARILY composed of:

phospholipids.

What is the term that describes the process in which nutrients pass through the wall of the gastrointestinal tract?

absorption

Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ of digestion?

large intestine

The acidity of the stomach allows for all of the following EXCEPT:

preparing dietary carbohydrates for absorption in the small intestine

Which of the following are examples of carbohydrate-rich foods?

wheat and lentils

Which of the following is NOTa primary function of dietary protein?

serving as a primary source of energy for the body

Vitamins are classified into two groups, ________ and ________.

fat soluble; water soluble

The dietary standard that has been established regarding nutrients about which more research is needed to determine human requirements is the:

AI.

Which federal agency conducts the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)?

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Dr. Sullivan is conducting a clinical trial to determine if vitamin Z can improve test performance of students in an introductory college nutrition course. Dr. Sullivan puts all the students' names in a hat and draws names to determine if they will be placed in the control or the experimental group. The experimental group receives a capsule of vitamin Z and the control group a "sugar pill" that tastes and looks identical to the vitamin Z capsule. Neither Dr. Sullivan nor the participants know who is receiving which treatment. This experiment is best described as:

double-blind, random selection, placebo controlled.

The four characteristics of a healthful diet are adequacy, balance, moderation, and ________.

variety

________ refers to eating the right proportion of foods.

Balance

The government agency that regulates the food labels on fresh meat and poultry in the United States is the:

USDA

Overweight status can be evaluated by calculating an individual's body mass index (BMI) and/or by measuring:

waist circumference.

The foods that are found at the very top of the Food Guide Pyramid include:

fats, oils, and sweets.

The 5-A-Day for Better Health Program was developed by the:

National Cancer Institute.

What is at the base of the Healthy Eating Pyramid?

daily exercise and weight control

Hunger is best described as:

a physiological desire to consume food.

The human body is organized into the following structural levels (smallest to largest):

atoms: molecules: cells: tissues: organs: systems.

Proteins that act to speed up body processes, but are not changed in the process, are called:

enzymes

The term complex carbohydrates refers to:

polysaccharides

In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the:

muscles and liver.

Which of the following is the preferred fuel for most body functions?

carbohydrate

Insulin is synthesized and released by the:

pancreas.

Which of the following BESTdescribes the glycemic index?

the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

Without sufficient ________, the colon gets too little exercise and becomes weak.

fiber

Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?

saccharin

In the United States, the most common food-borne illnesses result from which of the following bacteria?

Campylobacter jejuni

Which of the following is an example of food intoxication?

Clostridium botulinum

Hepatitis A is a food-borne virus that can result in ________ damage.

liver

The easiest and most effective way to prevent food-borne illnesses is to:

wash hands before handling food.

An estimated ________ of all chicken eggs in the U.S. are contaminated with Salmonella.

one-third

Which of the following food preservation methods limits spoilage by drawing water out of foods, making them inhospitable to bacterial growth?

sugaring
salting
smoking
all of these

Which of the following is an example of a persistent organic pollutant?

mercury

Why is rBGH given to many U.S. dairy cows?

to increase milk production without increasing feed

What is the primary form of lipid in the diet?

triglycerides

Triglycerides are classified by:

the length of the fatty acids.
the saturation of the fatty acids.
the shape of the fatty acids.
all of these

Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

corn oil

The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called:

hydrogenation.

Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of dietary cholesterol?

butter

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225 kilocalories

Yesterday Shannon consumed 250 grams of carbohydrate, 75 grams of protein, and 60 grams of fat. What percentage of calories of her day's intake came from fat?

29%

Which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat?

adrenaline

The two essential fatty acids are:

linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid.

How does fat consumption relate to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake?

These vitamins are insoluble in water and require fats for their absorption and transport.

One potential problem with a very low-fat diet is that it may be deficient in:

essential fatty acids.

Which of the following foods contains invisible fats?

chocolate cake

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?

Hydrogenation creates a "heart healthy" product.

What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?

nitrogen

All of the following are examples of protein hormones EXCEPT:

estrogen.

Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process?

water

Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth?

salivary amylase

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?

130 grams

Individuals with the disease PKU (phenylketonuria) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

Peggy Sue's doctor wants to screen her for reactive hypoglycemia. If her doctor's suspicions are correct and Peggy Sue does have reactive hypoglycemia, what would you expect her blood glucose concentration to be at approximately TWO HOURS after she had begun her glucose tolerance test?

depressed as compared to a normal individual

Which of the following ethnic groups has the LOWEST incidence of lactose intolerance?

Caucasians

The two types of fungi are:

molds and yeasts.

It is 10 a.m. and Julie is trying to decide what to prepare for tonight's dinner. She selects a frozen turkey breast and must thaw it before she can proceed with her cooking preparations. Which of the following would be an appropriate method of thawing her poultry?

Julie could use her microwave.

Which of the following additives gives ham, hot dogs, and bologna their pink color?

nitrates/nitrites

Which government agency regulates the labeling, sale, distribution, use, and disposal of all pesticides in the United States?

Environmental Protection Agency

Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?

saturated

How does fat consumption relate to vitamin A, D, E, and K intake?

These vitamins are insoluble in water and require fats for their absorption and transport.

Which of the following is NOT true of fats?

Dietary fats stimulate hunger signals to the brain.

One potential problem with a very low-fat diet is that it may be deficient in:

essential fatty acids.

The production of endogenous VLDL is decreased by:

exercise.

The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the:

amine group.

The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called:

transcription.

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

antibodies

Which of the following health problems has been associated with high protein intakes?

elevated blood cholesterol

Which of the following is a genetic disorder resulting in debilitating protein abnormalities?

cystic fibrosis

Carbon and hydrogen are two examples of:

atoms

Which of the following diseases has been linked to free radical damage?

cancer
heart disease
diabetes
all of these

Which of the following food preparation methods would be the LEAST likely to destroy vitamin E?

freezing

Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?

vitamin C

Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?

green and red peppers

Which of the following groups of people is the least likely to develop a vitamin A deficiency?

pregnant women

Which of the following nutrients increases the absorption rate of calcium?

vitamin D

Where do humans obtain vitamin D?

both diet and sunlight

The primary role of the B-complex vitamins is to:

act as coenzymes.

Which of the following B-complex vitamins is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids?

pantothenic acid

Consuming an excess of _______ calories in one week will result in a weight gain of one pound per week.

3500

According to the standard definition of "binge" by the American Psychiatric Association, how frequently should an episode occur in order to be part of the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa?

twice a week or more for 3 months

Which of the following is a disadvantage of carbohydrate loading?

dehydration
abdominal bloating
diarrhea
All of these may result from carbohydrate loading.

What are the standard criteria used for diagnosing an eating disorder?

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of bulimia nervosa?

episodes of extreme overeating

Which of the following family characteristics is NOT associated with anorexia nervosa?

angry and disruptive family environment

Which is NOT a symptom of anorexia nervosa?

secretive consumption of large amounts of food in a short period of time

these are methods of purging?

laxatives
exercise
enemas

Warning signs of the female athlete triad include:

excessive dieting.

excessive exercise.

stress fractures.

all of these.

Which of the following would NOT be an appropriate treatment strategy in treating someone with anorexia nervosa?

minimum weight gain of five pounds/week

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