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1. Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
A. Maintaining volume, pH, and composition of body fluids within normal ranges.
B. Removal of excess chemicals.
C. Removal of metabolic wastes.
D. Synthesis of plasma proteins.
E. Removal of drug metabolites.

D. Synthesis of plasma proteins.

2. The organs of the urinary system are
A. the renal cortex, renal pelvis, and renal medulla.
B. the glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, the nephron loop, distal convoluted tubule, and the collecting duct.
C. a kidney, a ureter, and paired bladders and urethras.
D. paired kidneys, paired ureters, a bladder and a urethra.
E. the penis, the vagina, the uterus, and the hilum.

D. paired kidneys, paired ureters, a bladder and a urethra.

3. Athletes might abuse which of the following chemicals made in the urinary system to improve performance by increasing red blood cell production?
A. ADH
B. Erythropoietin (EPO)
C. Glomerular filtrate
D. Urea
E. ATP

B. Erythropoietin (EPO)

4. Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys?
A. The right kidney is usually higher than the left one.
B. They are located behind the parietal peritoneum.
C. Their upper borders are about at the level of the third lumbar vertebra.
D. They are against the anterior wall of the abdominal cavity.
E. None of the above.

B. They are located behind the parietal peritoneum.

5. A renal corpuscle includes the
A. glomerulus and glomerular capsule.
B. glomerulus and renal tubule.
C. glomerular capsule and renal tubule.
D. renal tubule and collecting tubule.
E. red blood cells and hemoglobin

A. glomerulus and glomerular capsule.

6. Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?
A. Proximal convoluted tubule, ascending limb, descending limb, distal convoluted tubule
B. Distal convoluted tubule, ascending limb, descending limb, proximal convoluted tubule
C. Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
D. Collecting duct, proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
E. Ascending convoluted tubule, proximal limb, descending convoluted tubule, distal limb.

C. Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule

7. A nephron consists of
A. a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
B. an afferent and efferent arteriole.
C. a cortex and a medulla.
D. a bladder and a ureter.
E. peritubular and paratubular capillaries.

A. a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.

8. A biochemical important in glomerulus formation in the embryo is
A. ADH.
B. ADP.
C. renin.
D. aquaporin.
E. VEGF

E. VEGF

9. The renal medulla is composed of _____, whereas the renal cortex is composed of _____.
A. renal pyramids; ureters from nephrons
B. renal columns; renal pyramids and nephrons
C. collecting tubules; peritubular capillaries from nephrons
D. renal pyramids; nephron tubules
E. strings; strands

D. renal pyramids; nephron tubules

10. A renal corpuscle is a _____, whereas a renal tubule is a _____.
A. cluster of blood capillaries and glomerular capsule; highly coiled tubule exiting the glomerular capsule
B. special blood cell in the kidneys; tubule that leads from the kidneys to the bladder
C. storage area for urine; tubule that carries urine from the urinary bladder outside
D. glandular structure that regulates blood pressure; blood vessel that regulates the flow of blood into the glomerulus
E. structure composed of connective tissue; blood vessel

A. cluster of blood capillaries and glomerular capsule; highly coiled tubule exiting the glomerular capsule

11. Podocytes and pedicels are part of the
A. collecting duct.
B. distal convoluted tubule.
C. urethra.
D. peritubular capillaries.
E. glomerular capsule.

E. glomerular capsule.

12. The first capillary bed associated with the nephron
A. filters.
B. reabsorbs nutrients.
C. adjusts pH.
D. forms urine.
E. reverses the flow of blood

A. filters.

13. Once in the glomerulus, the filtrate moves into the
A. renal pelvis.
B. renal calyx.
C. renal tubule.
D. ureter.
E. bladder.

C. renal tubule.

14. The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the
A. glomerular capsule.
B. nephron loop.
C. proximal convoluted tubule.
D. distal convoluted tubule.
E. renal duct.

C. proximal convoluted tubule.

15. When plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold,
A. the glomerular filtration rate increases.
B. the volume of urine decreases.
C. glucose is secreted into the peritubular capillary.
D. glucose appears in the urine.
E. glucose disappears from the urine.

D. glucose appears in the urine.

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