Urinary Set 16-30

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16. When sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions are
A. reabsorbed by active transport.
B. reabsorbed by passive transport.
C. secreted by active transport.
D. secreted by passive transport.
E. none of the above.

B. reabsorbed by passive transport.

17. The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the
A. renal corpuscle.
B. proximal convoluted tubule.
C. distal convoluted tubule
D. nephron loop.
E. ureters.

D. nephron loop.

18. The hormone ADH promotes water reabsorption through the wall(s) of the
A. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.
B. proximal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.
C. ascending limb of the nephron loop.
D. descending limb of the nephron loop.
E. glomerulus.

A. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.

19. Most hydrogen ions are secreted
A. passively into the proximal convoluted tubule.
B. passively from the distal convoluted tubule.
C. actively into the entire renal tubule.
D. actively from the distal convoluted tubule.
E. endocytotically in the nephron loop.

C. actively into the entire renal tubule.

20. Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration?
A. Decreased blood pressure
B. Increased blood pressure
C. A constricted afferent arteriole
D. A dilated efferent arteriole
E. Drinking water

B. Increased blood pressure

21. In which of the following regions of the nephron is water actively transported?
A. Proximal convoluted tubule
B. Descending limb of the nephron loop
C. Collecting duct
D. Peritubular capillaries.
E. None of the above

E. None of the above

22. Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine?
A. Urea
B. Uric acid
C. Creatinine
D. Water
E. None of the above

E. None of the above

23. Which choice describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop?
A. Water moves out of the ascending limb; sodium moves in the ascending limb
B. Water moves in the ascending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
C. Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb
D. Water moves in the descending limb; sodium moves out of the descending limb
E. Water moves out of the descending limb; calcium moves out of the ascending limb

C. Water moves out of the descending limb; sodium moves out of the ascending limb

24. In the disease gout, plasma has excess
A. uric acid.
B. urea.
C. calcium ions.
D. amino acids.
E. hemoglobin.

A. uric acid

25. As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure
A. rises and filtration increases.
B. rises and filtration decreases.
C. drops and filtration increases.
D. drops and filtration decreases.
E. does not change

D. drops and filtration decreases.

26. The countercurrent mechanism in the nephron
A. creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water.
B. is a method to move sodium to control its concentration.
C. keeps the volume of water lost in the urine relatively constant.
D. keeps interstitial fluid hydrated to maintain blood pressure.
E. none of the above.

A. creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water.

27. Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be
A. excreted and water to be conserved.
B. excreted and water to be excreted.
C. conserved and water to be conserved.
D. conserved and water to be excreted.
E. unchanged in concentration.

C. conserved and water to be conserved.

28. Michael is 26 years old. He becomes dehydrated after a long run if he has not drunk enough. His infant son Sean, however, becomes dehydrated fairly frequently. This difference in susceptibility to dehydration is because
A. adults drink more liquid.
B. infants grow rapidly.
C. infant kidneys are less able to conserve water.
D. the infant thirst mechanism is underdeveloped.
E. Sean has inherited a kidney disease from his father.

C. infant kidneys are less able to conserve water.

29. A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys can
A. excrete water.
B. reabsorb ions.
C. remove a particular substance from the blood.
D. restore the correct pH of the blood.
E. add a substance to the blood.

C. remove a particular substance from the blood.

30. An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure ________ the rate of glomerular filtration.
A. increases
B. decreases
C. does not change
D. has a variable effect on
E. stops

A. increases

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