Urinary Set 30-44

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30. An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure ________ the rate of glomerular filtration.
A. increases
B. decreases
C. does not change
D. has a variable effect on
E. stops

A. increases

31. Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by
A. vasodilation of the afferent arteriole only.
B. vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole only.
C. both vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole.
D. both vasodilation of the afferent arteriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole.
E. none of the above.

D. both vasodilation of the afferent arteriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole.

32. The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _____ and by ____.
A. vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capsule
B. vasoconstriction of the peritubular capillary; dilation of the collecting duct
C. vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; renin-angiotensin II vasoconstricting the renal artery
D. vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole; vasoconstriction of the ureters.
E. all of the above; depending on conditions.

C. vasodilation of the afferent arteriole; renin-angiotensin II vasoconstricting the renal artery

33. An adaptation of the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule for reabsorption is
A. thin walls.
B. rugae folds that increase surface area.
C. secreting enzymes that activate absorption of substances.
D. microscopic projections called microvilli.
E. microscopic invaginations.

D. microscopic projections called microvilli.

34. A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular capsule will _____ the rate of glomerular filtration.
A. increase
B. decrease
C. not change
D. have a variable effect on
E. stop

B. decrease

35. The composition of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by including
A. many different substances that are absent from plasma.
B. the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules.
C. less water and electrolytes than does plasma.
D. much more uric acid and creatinine than plasma.
E. DNA and RNA.

B. the same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules.

36. Glomerular filtration produces about ________ liters of fluid in twenty-four hours.
A. 40
B. 96
C. 144
D. 180
E. 240

D. 180

37. An increase in urine volume is termed
A. anuresis.
B. dialysis.
C. diuresis.
D. urinary edema.
E. plasmaphoresis.

C. diuresis.

38. If glucose is not reabsorbed in the tubular fluid ___________ increases.
A. hydrostatic pressure
B. glomerular filtration rate
C. the rate of urine production
D. the osmotic concentration
E. none of the above.

D. the osmotic concentration

39. Water channels in cell membranes formed by __________ are a result of ADH signaling in the kidneys.
A. podocytes
B. cytopores
C. aquaporins
D. pyrogens
E. ring proteins

C. aquaporins

40. Which of the following is not a diuretic?
A. Caffeine
B. Chocolate
C. Alcohol
D. Tea
E. A water pill

B. Chocolate

41. Linda drinks a 28-ounce venti sugar-free vanilla nonfat caffe latte on her way to work, and has to urinate about a half hour later. This is most likely because
A. a venti is a very large drink.
B. caffeine is a diuretic.
C. the vanilla inhibits ADH secretion.
D. walking quickly rushes fluid through the urinary system.
E. all of the above.

B. caffeine is a diuretic.

42. After work Linda relaxes by drinking two beers, and soon has to urinate. The alcohol is a diuretic because it
A. activates distal tubular sodium secretion.
B. inhibits aldosterone secretion.
C. inhibits ADH secretion.
D. activates chloride ion reabsorption.
E. promotes ADH secretion.

C. inhibits ADH secretion.

43. A by-product of amino acid catabolism in the liver is
A. uric acid.
B. urea.
C. ammonia.
D. water.
E. phenylalanine.

B. urea.

44. A product of the metabolism of certain nucleic acid bases is
A. uric acid.
B. urea.
C. ammonia.
D. water.
E. adenine.

A. uric acid.

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