Chapter 21 16-30

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16. ADH level in nephrons regulates water output by causing the _____.
A. glomerulus and proximal convoluted tubule to filter less or more water
B. glomerular capsule and nephron loop to absorb more or less water
C. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more or less water
D. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more or less sodium ions
E. peritubular capillaries to carry more or less blood.

C. distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to reabsorb more or less water

17. Thirst is triggered when total body water decreases by as little as
A. 1%.
B. 10%.
C. 25%.
D. 58%
E. 75%.

A. 1%.

18. A person in a moderate environment would lose the greatest volume of water in
A. sweat.
B. mucus.
C. feces.
D. urine.
E. blood.

D. urine.

19. If excess water enters the body,
A. ADH release increases.
B. more water is reabsorbed from the renal tubules.
C. osmoreceptors in the brain swell.
D. the collecting duct becomes more permeable to water.
E. the person becomes intensely thirsty.

C. osmoreceptors in the brain swell.

20. The hormone aldosterone promotes the
A. reabsorption of sodium.
B. secretion of sodium.
C. reabsorption of potassium.
D. secretion of calcium.
E. excretion of sodium.

A. reabsorption of sodium.

21. The primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is
A. rising potassium concentration.
B. falling potassium concentration.
C. rising sodium concentration.
D. falling sodium concentration.
E. taking in too much water

A. rising potassium concentration.

22. When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are
A. actively reabsorbed.
B. passively reabsorbed.
C. secreted.
D. resorbed.
E. destroyed.

C. secreted.

23. Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?
A. Removing the parathyroid glands
B. Administering high doses of vitamin D and calcium salts
C. Stimulating calcium excretion by the kidneys
D. Avoiding foods that are high in calcium
E. Not using tanning booths

B. Administering high doses of vitamin D and calcium salts

24. Which of the following metabolic processes releases hydrogen ions to body fluids?
A. Anaerobic respiration of glucose
B. Aerobic respiration of glucose
C. Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids
D. Oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

25. Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by
A. converting weak acids to strong acids.
B. converting strong acids to weak acids.
C. increasing breathing rate.
D. promoting the excretion of hydrogen ions.
E. ensuring that the number of acid molecules equals the number of base molecules.

B. converting strong acids to weak acids.

26. Maxwell has just finished a brutal 10 kilometer run. His body has
A. an increased production of carbonic acid and increased pH of body fluids.
B. an increased production of carbonic acid and decreased pH of body fluids.
C. a decreased production of carbonic acid, and increased pH of body fluids.
D. a decreased production of carbonic acid and decreased pH of body fluids.
E. no change in production of carbonic acid or pH.

B. an increased production of carbonic acid and decreased pH of body fluids.

27. Which of the following is a physiological buffer?
A. Bicarbonate buffer
B. Phosphate buffer
C. Protein buffer
D. Renal mechanism
E. Alka seltzer

D. Renal mechanism

28. The part of an amino acid that is important in the protein buffer system is the
A. amino and R groups.
B. the amino and carboxyl groups.
C. the bicarbonate group.
D. the phosphate buffer group.
E. the R group

B. the amino and carboxyl groups.

29. The phosphate buffer system consists of
A. monohydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate.
B. hydrochloric acid and monohydrogen phosphate.
C. sodium chloride and monohydrogen phosphate.
D. dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate.
E. amino acids.

A. monohydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate.

30. The respiratory center is most likely to increase the breathing rate if the
A. concentration of carbonic acid is decreasing.
B. pH of body fluids is decreasing.
C. pH of body fluids is increasing.
D. concentration of sodium bicarbonate is increasing.
E. none of the above.

B. pH of body fluids is decreasing.

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