Unit 3 - [Religion]

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Animism

belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events such as thunderstorms or earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

Buddhism

one of the world's largest universalizing religions with nearly 400 millions adherents; represented by 4 mains concepts known as the Four Noble Truths. These adherents are found mainly in China and Southeast Asia.-Buddha is their mentor

Cargo cult pilgrimage

Cargo Cult's believe western goods have been traded to them by ancestral spirits. It takes place in Melanesia and is important go HG because it's a big religious movement by a large number of people

Christianity

a monotheistic religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. It's important to HG because it's the most popular religion in the world

Confucianism

An ancient Chinese ethical and philosophical Its focus is human morality and good deeds. Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical values. Not a religion or ancestor worship. Examples of where it influences China,Korea

Ethnic religion

A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution. Principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular locations in which its followers are concentrated.Ex. Shinto, Judaism, Hinduism

Exclave/enclave

(Enclave) A country or part of a country mostly surrounded by the territory of another country or wholly lying within the boundaries of another country. Examples are Republic of San Marino, Vatican City, Kingdom of Lethoso, Portugal, South Korea, Denmark
(Exclave) describes a country or territory that belongs to another country but is surrounded by countries to which it has no belonging or affinity. It is usually at least partially separated from the main country, state, or political region. Ex. Alaska

Fundamentalism

A usually religious movement or point of view characterized by a return to fundamental principles, by rigid adherence to those principles, and often by intolerance of other views and opposition to secularism.

Geomancy (feng shui)

an ancient Chinese practice believed to utilize the Laws of both Heaven (astronomy) and Earth (geography) to help one improve life by receiving positive Qi. The practice of arranging objects, (such as the internal placement of furniture in an environment)

Hadj

The fifth pillar of Islam, pilgrimage to Mecca

Hinduism

Worlds 3rd largest religion. Most adherents from India and Nepal. Beliefs include dharma (ethics/duties), continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth, karma and yoga.

Interfaith boundaries

the boundaries between the world's major faiths, such as Christianity, Muslim, and Buddhism. Separates different groups of people for different reasons.

Islam

The second largest religion in the world. Means the submission to the will of god. It originated with the teachings of Muhammad.

Jainism

One of the oldest religions of the world, originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence, equality of life, non-violence, and consequences for ones behaviour.

Judaism

Is the religion of the Jewish people, based on principles and ethics embodied in the Hebrew Bible. In 2007, the world Jewish population was estimated at 13.2 million people with 41% if them living in Israel

Landscapes of the dead

There are three main techniques to dispose of the Dead. They are; Burial, Cremation, and Exposure. Burial is the technique embraced by the Christians, Baha'i, Muslims, and Jews. Cremation; Hindus, High Ranking Buddhists. Exposure; Parsis.

Monotheism/polytheism

In religion, a belief in one personal god. In practice, monotheistic religion tends to stress the existence of one personal god that controls the universe. The term is applied specifically to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as Zoroastrianism.

Mormonism

Is a term used to describe the religious, ideological, and cultural elements of certain branches of the Latter Day Saint movement, specifically, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints An ancient prophet is believed to have compiled history of USA

Muslim pilgrimage

Also called "Hadj". This is one of the five pillars of Islam. It is the duty of each Muslim at least once in their life to make a pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca. To see the Kaba at al-Harim al-Sharif

Muslim population

-Distributed in Central Asia, Northern Africa and South East Asia
-1,449,765,439 - 1,513,955,647 followers
-Growing Population

Proselytic religion

-Referred to in use with Universalizing Religions
-To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion

Reincarnation

-After this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human life.
-What you do in this life will affect what your next life
-Buddhist and Hinduism

Religion (groups,places)

-Universalizing; Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. -Ethnic religions; Hinduism, Daoism, and Confucianism
-These religions are spread out throughout the world.
-All regions of the world have a religion

Religious architectural styles

-Christians have always made temple
-Buddhists have always made a lot of religious statues
-Affects future architecture of civilizations

Religious conflict

A conflict between relgions. Examples would include conflict between Catholic and Protestant Christians in North Ireland, and conflicts between Jewish Israelis and Muslim Palestinians/Israel's Muslim neighbours in modern day Israel.

Religious culture hearth

The point of origin for a religion. For example, Southern Saudi Arabia around Mecca for Islam, Jerusalem/Bethlehem for Christianity and Northeast India for Buddhism.

Religious toponym

A Toponym is a place name, therefore a religious toponym is a religious place name. Examples would be the St. before the names of Catholic places (St.Peters Basilica.)

Sacred space

A sacred space is a space deemed holy by a religious group. Groups will hold religious ceremonies, build major temples or hold major events in these areas. Where Religious Sites overlap (Jerusalem) there may be conflict.

Secularism

Secularism is the belief that certain sorts of institutions should be kept separate from religious influence. Examples being separation of church and state.

Shamanism

Shamanism refers to a range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world.

Sharia law

- it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles.

Shinoism

It is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worship of kami (a god). Not very significant anymore and lost importance to today.

Sikhism

- is a religion that began in sixteenth century in Northern India . The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū.

Sunni/Shia

sunni/shia are the two major denominations of Islam. Approximately 85% of the world's Muslims are Sunni, whilst the remaining 15% are Shi'a.

Taoism

Also called Daoism. Is often distinguished as separate ethnic religions in China. Many Chinese consider themselves both Buddhist and Taoist. Based on the mystical and magical aspects of life. Banned by communists in 1949.

Theocracy

A form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. Iran and the Vatican are both considered to have a theocracy government.

Universalizing

Universalizing religions attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one cultural or location. Ie: Christianity

Zoroastrianism

the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster. It was once the dominant religion of Iran, now its followers have diminished to less than 200,000 mostly in India and Iran.

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