a tool for measuring and analyzing human natural resource consumption and waste output within the context of nature's renewable and regenerative capacity (or bio-capacity). Footprints are not bad or good per se.
Ways for reducing footprint
footprints are the result of both individual and government decisions. Changing the way we live, and being more eco friendly can greatly reduce the footprint.
Reasons for a high footprint
high transportation, government decisions, not being eco-friendly, etc.
when humanity's footprint is within the annual regenerative capabilities of nature
Trophic Levels Order
Level 1(bottom): primary producers, green plants, autotrophs. Create energy supply during photosynthesis.
Level 2: heterotrophs, eat primary producers to gain energy. Herbivores
Level 3: Heterotrophs, secondary producers, carnivores.
Chlorofluorocarbons. highly popular compound until discovered that it contributed to ozone depletion.
the alternative for CFC's. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons.
the measurement of how acidic or how basic a substance is. Based on the negative log scale.
Biological Oxygen Demand
amount of oxygen consumed by microbes which eat/decompose organic material in water. Organic material is said to get in the water due to a high dissolved oxygen, and low biological oxygen demand.
oxygen dissolved in water. Can be affected by the temperature of the water. As water temp increases, the ability to hold oxygen decreases. Photosynthesis of plants, riffles, and rapids increase dissolved oxygen
What is the pH of water at most water treatment plants?
Around 8-8.5 which is slightly basic but not harmful to us. If it were a pH of 6 or lower, the pipes could rot.
What two chemicals are added to the water at the end of treatment?
Fluoride and Chlorine
used to remove sediments from the water. Sulfates & Polymers are mixed with the water to form flocs, or sediment balls that fall to the bottom.
How many gallons of water are treated daily from all Fort Worth plants combined?
485 million gallons
How many gallons of water are treated daily at South Holly plant?
60-100 million gallons
Disinfectants for water:
Chlorine is currently used at plants but ozone will begin to be used because it is more effective. Chlorine will still be necessary in order to prevent growth of things in water.
the feeding positions in a good chain
emittents that harm the environment, air, and ozone. Come from cars, factories, electricity, and the use of cheap fuel sources that do not fully combust.
When an organism of a higher trophic level consumes an organ from a lower trophic level and therefore consumes that organisms toxins if it has any.
Example of Biomagnification
A pelican must consume 10 pounds of fish for every pound of body mass. If the fish have toxins then the pelican would have 10x the toxins that one of the fish had.
Two ways of Bioaccumulation
1. If the body mistakes a toxin for an essential nutrient.
2. If the toxin is not used by the organism, but becomes trapped in fatty tissues or bonded to certain proteins
When organisms living at a trophic level take in the toxic chemicals in their tissue because their bodies don't know what to do with the chemicals.
Net Primary Productivity
The difference between carbon assimilation and carbon emission. If it is negative, than the eco-system is a carbon source. If it is positive, than it is a carbon sink.
takes place in the mitochondria, the chemical cycle during this generates energy. (ADP)
process by which plants and other photoautotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light in chloroplast.
Photosynthesis is often called
Infared Rays. A form of longwave radiation. Much less intense than U.V. rays and are what we and everything on earth emit.
a shortwave radiation and is 90% of the radiation coming from the sun.
Major gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorocarbons.
Where are Greenhouse gases from?
the atmosphere and found in many of our technologies today
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere; caused by atmospheric gases that allow sunshine to pass through but absorb heat that is radiated back from the warmed surface of the earth.
Urban China residents were limited to only one child. Rural residents and minorities were not subject to the law. Reduced population by 300 million in the first 20 years.
the time between the drop in fertility rates and the decline in the RNI.
Population Growth Rate. If it is positive the population is increasing. If it is negative the population is decreasing. It is found by the # of individuals entering the population minus the # of individuals leaving the population
Rate of Natural Increase. Birth rate-death rate. Deals only with births and deaths that occur naturally within a population. No immigration.
When the footprint is within the annual regenerative capabilities of nature.
Reasons for a High Footprint
high transportation, government decisions, not being eco-friendly, etc.
Ways for Reducing Footprint
Becoming more eco-friendly. Multiple options.
a tool for measuring and analyzing human natural resource consumption and waste output.
-made efforts for clean-up but continued building factories.
-signed kyoto protocol but because they are still considered a developing nation, they are not required to curb emissions.
Alliance of Small Island States Perspective
want drastic reductions in carbon emissions and are very passionate about it.
European Union Perspective
wants strong, immediate action. Believes that it is a legitimate threat to be taken into consideration.
Developing Nations Perspective
recognized the need for reduction in greenhouse gases but recognized they had more important and urgent needs to take care of
Created to prevent global warming and climate changes. Last time to meet on government level before the climate level needed to be renewed.
Pro's: good motivation, good concept. creating new jobs
Con's: expensive, could put businesses and jobs at stake.
Designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion.
Pro's: protected countries from releasing too much carbon into the atmosphere
Con's: to make energy more expensive and dictators more rich
First legally binding, international agreement with goal of reducing carbon emissions.
Pros: works for the betterment of the entire planet
Cons: can't punish nations for not reaching the goal, and very costly.
Wedges were created by
Robert Socolow & Stephen Pacala
1) Increasing the connectivity between reserves and reduce human interference.
2) Make the island larger because the larger the island, the lower the extinction rates. If not possible, increase conservation area and put in a buffer zone around it.
Strengths & Weaknesses of each Measurement
Islands close to mainland will have high immigration rates while islands farther from mainland will have lower immigration rates.
3 Assumptions of the Island Biogeography Theory
1) species richness is the balance between immigration and extinction rate.
2) Immigration and extinction rates are modified by island area and distance from the mainland.
3) Immigration and extinction rates on or off the island are random. All species are equal in their ability to migrate and become extinct.
Island Biogeography Theory
When some islands contain higher biodiversity than others. Has 3 assumptions.
the diversity of a population
the simplest way to quantify biodiversity, counting the number of different species. It is thorough but problamatic. Treats rare species and common species the same with no regard to population size
the measure of all living organisms, including the genetic variation within species
Simpsons Reciprocal Index
(1/D)--number will be greater than or equal to 1. Higher the diversity, higher the value
Simpsons Index of Diversity
(1-D)--number is between one and 0. 0 represents no diversity and 1 represents infinite diversity.
Simpsons Biodiversity Index
used to determine heterogeneity.
cloudiness of the water. Can decrease photosynthesis rates during the day and therefore decrease dissolved oxygen levels.
Discovered in 1985. Due to chlorine and bromine compounds in the atmosphere cause ozone loss. The ozone hole over Antarctica and the North Pole is an example of that. Nearly all the chlorine has been from human activities.
High or Low Ozone?
Low ozone is what we want. In times of high ozone, pollution is much greater.
Originates from cheap fuel that does not combust completely. Known as secondary particles. Range from 2.5-10 micrometers in diameter.
Makes its way into the air from coal power plants. It is not harmful to us in the form of which it leaves the smokestacks, however, it is when it gets deposited into areas such as lakes where we acquire our fish. It is a carcinogen.
the transfer of particles suspended in the air onto land or water.