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geography

the study of Earth and its people

globe

a model of the Earth

latitude (parallels)

shows distance North or South of Equator

longitude (meridians)

shows distance East or West of Prime Meridian

degrees

unit of measurement for latitude/longitude

hemisphere

1/2 of the Earth or globe

grid

criss-cross lines on map

scale

tells true distance on a map

compass rose

tells directions on a map

cardinal directions

North, South, East, West

distortion

not true size

projection

make flat map from a globe

key (legend)

tells what the symbols mean on a map

magma

molten rock (hot, liquid)

continent

7 huge land masses on Earth

tectonic plate

huge slabs of Earth's crust

earthquake

sudden movement of Earth's crust

Ring of Fire

ring of volcanoes and earthquakes around Pacific Ocean

volcano

opening in Earth for magma

weathering

the breakdown of rocks and soil

erosion

the movement of weathered rocks/soil

sediment

deposits of sand, rocks, dirt

glacier

big chunk of ice or snow- slowly moving

drainage basin

area drained by a river

ground water

water found underground

hydrologic cycle

water cycle- evaporation; condensation; precipitation; run-off

landform

land feature on Earth

plateau

high, flat land

relief

height of a landform

continental shelf

underwater edge of a continent

atmosphere

gases around the Earth

solstice

sun's rays hitting Tropic of Cancer-June 21/Tropic of Capricorn- Dec 22

equinox

sun's rays hitting the Equator- March 21, Sept 22 (equal day/night)

weather

the condition of Earth's air (temperature and precipitation)

solar energy

heat/energy from the sun

hurricane

a tropical storm with heavy wind/rain in the Atlantic Ocean

typhoon

a tropical storm with heavy wind/rain in the Pacific Ocean

climate

weather over a period of time

wind currents

moving air that distributes sun's heat

ocean currents

rivers in the ocean that distribute hot/cold water

climate region

area of Earth with same climate

tropical

hot climate region near the Equator

vegetation region

area with similar plants

savanna

vegetation region with grasses and trees (Africa)

desert

dry region with few plants

tornado

violent, rotating winds over land

tsunami

huge ocean wave formed by an underwater earthquake

global warming

getting warmer on Earth

greenhouse effect

Sun's heat trapped on Earth

greenhouse gas

gas that traps the Sun's heat

carbon dioxide

a main greenhouse gas

fossil fuels

gas, oil, coal

emissions

gases put in the air (cars; factories)

desertification

ruining of farmland

degraded

getting worse

overgrazing

overeating by farm animals

deforestation

cutting down trees and not replanting

sustainable

use natural resources wisely for the future

strip mining

stripping off the surface of the Earth

air pollution

man-made chemicals in the air

water pollution

man-made chemicals in the water

acid rain

rain poisoned by air pollution

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