Chemistry 521A - Solutions & Solubility

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solubility

the mass of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at a specific temperature

saturated solution

a solution in which no more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature

unsaturated solution

a solution in which more of a particular solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature

miscible

describes substances that are able to combine with each other in any proportion

immiscible

describes substances that are not able to combine with each other in any proportion

diluted solution

a solution that contains a small amount of solute

concentrated solution

a solution that contains a large amount of solute

supersaturated solution

contains more solute that it can theoretically hold at a given temperature

Complete ionic equation

shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions

Net ionic equation

shows only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change

spectator ion

an ion that appears on both sides of an equation and is not directly involved in the reaction

surface tension

the inward force or pull that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid

surfactant

any substance that interferes with the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and thereby reduces surface tension; a wetting agent

solution

a homogeneous mixture; made of solutes dissolved in a solution

solution

Mixed Kool-aid is an example of this

solute

dissolved particles in a solution

aqueous solution

water that contains dissolved substances

solvent

the dissolving medium of a solution

solvation

the process by which the positive and negative ions of an ionic solid become surrounded by water

temperature

factors that affect how quickly a solute will dissolve include surface area of dissolving particles, stirring, and ______________

hydrogen bond

intermolecular attraction between a hydrogen atom and a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, on an adjacent molecule; example sodium hydroxide

electrolyte

a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state

non-electrolyte

a compound that does not conduct an electric current in either aqueous solution or molten state; example table sugar

weak electrolyte

a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions ex: ammonia

strong electrolyte

a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions ex: salt

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