african societies organized around kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority associated with states
the Arabic term for Eastern North Africa
the part of North Africa that is today the Mediterranean coast of Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco
followers of the Great Puritanical Reformist Movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; reject Sufis; very violent (launch a series of jihads, or holy wars)
followers of a reformist movement among the Islamic Berbers of northern Africa; followed the example of the Almoravids
a strip of dry grasslands on the southern border of the Sahara; also known as "the shore of the desert"
kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power, from the Senegal river to the Niger River. The states were ruled by a patriarch or council of elders. There was a core territorial area and then surrounding subordinate ones. The rulers of sudanic states were considered sacred and separate from their subjects. when islam spread to this area, only Royals practiced it and it was not spread to the people.
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout Mali empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa
the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, Timbuktu became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
muhammad the great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century
located on niger river, organized into city states, never united, were farmers, traded a lot of cotton, crops, cold, salt.
Arabic term for the east African coast
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
West Africa's earliest known culture; lived in what is now Nigeria; between 500 B.C. and A.D. 200; first people known to smelt iron; fashioned iron into tools for farming and weapons for hunting
city-states that developed in northern Nigeria; Ile-Ife had an artistic style similar to that of the Nok culture. agricultural society supported by peasantry; dominated by an aristocracy
a kingdom of the West African rain forest
kingdom based on agriculture; formed on lower Kongo River; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy