Basic Chemistry

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24 terms · All Vocab for chapter 2.1 and 2.2 of Prentice Hall - Biology

atom

basic unit of matter

nucleus

center of the atom containing protons and neutrons

electron

negatively charged particle circulating around the nucleus

proton

positively charged particle of an atom

neutron

neutral particle of an atom

element

pure substance consisting entirely of one type of atom

isotope

atoms of the same element but with a different number of neutron

compound

substance formed by the chemical comination of two or more compounds in definite proportion

ionic bond

Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

ion

positively or negatively charged atom

covalent bond

forms when electrons are shared between atoms

molecule

smallest unit of a compound

van der waals force

force of attraction between large molecules

cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the same substance

adhesion

an attraction between molecules of different substances

mixture

two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed but not chemically combined

solution

mixture where all components are even distributed

solute

the substance that is dissolved

solvent

the substance in which the solute is dissolved

suspension

mixtures of water and nondissolved materials

pH scale

measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution

acid

solution with a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than water

base

solution witha lower concentration of hydrogen ions than water

buffer

a weak acid or weak base that prevents sudden changes in pH

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