Apologia Biology, 2nd Ed; Mod. 6 (modified)

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This is a modified vocabulary list for Module 6. NOT ALL VOCAB WORDS INCLUDED

Absorption

The transport of dissolved substances into cells

Digestion

The breakdown of absorbed substances

Excretion

The removal of soluble waste materials

Secretion

The release of biosynthesized substances

Homeostasis

Maintaining the status quo

Middle lamella

The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells

Plasma membrane

The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings

Cytoplasm

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

Ions

Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons

Mitochondria

The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy

Lysosome

The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids

Ribosomes

Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis

Leucoplasts

Organelles that store starches or oils

Chromoplasts

Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis

Golgi bodies

The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell

Microtubules

Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure

Nuclear membrane

A highly- porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

Chromatin

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

Phospholipid

A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group

Active transport

Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by apocess that requires energy

Isotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution

Plasmolysis

Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water

Hypotonic solution

A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution

Activation energy

Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going

Electron transport system

This is the last stage of cellular respiration. It takes place in the mitochondrion. The hydrogen that was produced in the previous three stages is carefully reacted with oxygen to make water.

Endoplasmic recticulum

An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell

Phagocytosis

The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells

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