science exam vocab

77 terms by jcguitarman

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Motion

the state in which one object's distance from another is changing

reference point

a place or object used for comparison to determine if an object is in motion

speed

the distance an object travels per unit of time

average speed

the overall rate of speed at which an object moves

instantaneous speed

the speed you are traveling at a single time

velocity

the speed you travel in a certain direction

acceleration

the rat at which someones's velocity cnanges

meter

the SI unit for length

inertia

the tendancy of an object to resist any change

momentum

the product of an objects mass velocity

mass

the amount of matter in an object

weight

the force of gravity on an object

friction

the force that one surface exerts on another when two surfaces rub against each other

static friction

friction that acts on objects that are not moving

gravity

the force that pulls objcts toward each other

rolling friction

the friction acting when an object rolls across a surface

sliding friction

friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another

fluid friction

friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid

free fall

the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity.

air resistance

the fluid friction experienced by objects falling through the air

terminal velocity

the greatest velocity a falling object can reach

projectile

an object thrown or launched

law of conservation of momentum

a rule that in the absence of outside forces the total momentum of objects that inetract does not change

balanced forces

equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions

newton

the SI unit for force

net force

the overall force on an object when all the indibidual forces acting on it are added together

force

a push or pull exerted on an office

unbalanced forces

forces that produce a nonzero net force

joule

the SI unit for work

power

the rate at which work is done

work

force exerted on an object that causes it to move

machine

a device that makes things easier to do

inclined plane

a simple machine that is a flat, sloped surface

fulcrum

the fixed point around which a lever pivots

wedge

a simple machine which is a moving inclined plane

input force

the force that you put into a machine

output force

the force excerted by a machine

wheel and axle

a simple machine that consists of two attached circular or cylindrical objects that rotate about a common axis, each one with a different radius

pulley

a simple machine that consists of a grooved wheel with a rope or cable wrapped around it

screw

a simple machine that is an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder to form a spiral

lever

a simple machine that consists of a rigid bar that picots about a fixed point

compound machine

a devise that combines two or more simple machines

ideal mechanical advantage

the mechanical advantage that a machine would have without friction

real mechanical advantage

A machine that accually has a possible mechanical advantage

mechanical advantage

the number of times a machine increases a force exerted on it

efficiency

the percentage of the input work that is converted to output work

pressure

the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted

pascal

the SI unit for pressure

fluid

a material that can easily flow

bernoulli's principle

the rule that a stream f fast-moving fluid exerts less pressure than the surrounding fluid

hydraulic device

a system that multiplies force by transmitting pressure from a small surface area through a confined fluid to a larger surface

lift

an upward force

buoyant force

the upward force exerted by a fluid on a submerged object

archimede's principle

the rule that the bouyant force an an object is equal to the weight of the fluid the object displaces

density

the mass contained in an object

barometer

an instrument used to measure pressure

van allen belts

doughnut shaped regions 1,000-25,000 km aboce earth that contain subatomic particles traveling at high speeds`1

aurora

an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles following the earth's magnetic lines of force

solar wind

a stream of protons moving radially from the sun

compass

a device with a magnetized needle that spins freely

magnetosphere

the magnetic field of a planet

magnetic declination

the difference between the magnetic north and the true north

atom

the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element

element

one of about 100 basic materials that make up all matter

nucleus

the core at the center of every atom

proton

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

neutron

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

electron

a subatomic particle that has a negative charge surrounding the nucleus

magnetic domain

a region in which the magnetic fields of all atoms are lined up in the same direction

temporary magnet

a magnet made from material that easily loses its magnetism

permanent magnet

A magnet that retains its magnetism after being removed from a magnetic field

ferromagnetic material

a material that shows strong magnetic properties

magnet

any material that attracts iron and materials that contain iron

magnetic pole

one of the two ends of a magnet where the magnetism seems to be concentrated

magnetic force

a force produced when magnetic poles interact

magnetic field

the region around a magnet where the magnetic force is exerted

magnetic field lines

Invisible lines that map out the magnetic field around a magnet

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