structures of lower respiratory tract

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larynx

cartilaginous structure connecting the pharynx and trachea at the level of the cervical vertebrae; surrounds and protects the glottis and prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea; houses vocal cords; conducts air in and out of trachea through the glottis; composed of a framework of muscles and cartilages bound by elastic tissue

glottis

structure that conducts air in and out of the trachea through a narrow opening; opening just below vocal cords, triangular slit over trachea; closes to keep food and liquid from entering trachea; open during breathing

thyroid cartilage

prominent in males; known as the laryngeal prominence aka Adam's apple; largest cartilage of the larynx

vocal cords

folds of muscle and connective tissue with a mucous membrane covering; makes sound by air forced through the glottis between true _____ _____ causing them to vibrate from side to side making sound waves

phonation

sound waves produced

articulation

the turning of sounds into words by altering the shapes of the pharynx and oral cavity and using the tongue and lips

pitch

diameter, length, and tension in vocal folds determine ________

false vocal cords

muscles responsible for controlling tension in the vocal folds and sealing of the glottis during swallowing

laryngitis

when mucous membrane becomes inflamed and swollen due to infection or vapors; vocal cords cannot vibrate freely so person is unable to speak; mild or can completely obstruct airway

epiglottis

a laryngeal cartilage, flap-like structure that allows air to enter larynx; projects superior to glottis and forms lid over it to keep food from going into larynx; upright during breathing

coughing reflex

when food or liquids get too close to the entrance of the glottis it triggers the ______ ______

trachea

flexible tube extending down in front of the esophagus and into the thoracic cavity where it splits

bronchi

trachea splits into the left and right _______

ciliated

trachea is lined with ________ mucous membrane that entraps particles and moves up toward the pharynx where mucus can be swallowed

hyaline cartilage

tracheal wall has about 20 rings, which keep trachea from collapsing and blocking airway, made of of _______ ______ with smooth muscle and connective tissue fill the gap between the ends of the rings

soft tissue

complete rings of trachea, allow esophagus to expand as food moves through it to the stomach

bronchial tree

consists of branched airways leading from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs

primary bronchi

branching of bronchial tree start with the left and right ______ ______

hilus

primary bronchi travel to a groove along the medial surface of the lung called the _____ of the lung; it provides access for entry to pulmonary vessels, nerves, and lymphatics; attached to mediastinum by dense connective tissue, fixes positions of major nerves, vessels, and lymphatic vessels

secondary bronchi

each primary bronchus divides into ________ _______, which branches into finer tubes; goes to each lobe of lungs so the right lung as 3 and left lung has 2

cartilage

as bronchii become smaller, there is no _______ in the tubes

bronchioles

smaller tubes that continue to divide and give rise to terminal bronchioles

smooth muscles

lines the walls of bronchioles

diameter

varying _________ of bronchioles controls resistance to airflow and distribution of air in lungs

autonomic

________ nervous system regulates activity of smooth muscle in bronchioles

sympathetic activation

________ ________ leads to bronchodilation

parasympathetic activation

_________ _________ leads to bronchoconstriction

alveoli

connected to bronchioles along alveolar ducts; air sacs that lie within capillary nets

alveolar sacs

alveolar ducts end at _______ ______, common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli

oxygen

diffuses through alveolar walls and enters blood in nearby capillaries

carbon dioxide

diffuses from blood through the walls and enters alveoli

lungs

soft, spongy, cone-shaped organs in thoracic cavity; have distinct lobes divided by deep fissures

right

lung that has three lobes - superior, middle, and inferior

left

lung has two lobes - superior and inferior

bronchus

______ and some large blood vessels suspend each lung in the cavity; enter lung on its medial surface

visceral pleura

layer of serous membrane called the _______ _______ attached to each lung surface

parietal pleura

when visceral pleura folds back to become the _______ _______ and form a double walled sac; forms part of mediastinum and lines inner walls of thoracic cavity

pleural cavity

potential space between visceral and parietal pleurae; no significant space actually exists; contains think film of serous fluid called pleural fluid

pleural fluid

lubricates adjacent pleural surfaces, reducing friction as they move against one another during breathing

surface tension

pleural fluid helps hold pleural membranes together by creating _______ ________

pleurisy

pleural inflammation and pain that arises when pleural fluid is unable to prevent friction between opposing pleural surfaces; condition that occurs with many diseases

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