AP Psych Chap. 8&9

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The most crucial ingredient in all learning is:

Experience

Classical and operant conditioning both illustrate:

Associative learning

Classical conditioning is to ____ associations as operant conditioning is to ____ associations.

Stimulus-Stimulus; Stimulus-Response

Who was the first to emphasize that psychology should be restricted to the scientific study of observable behavior?

Watson

John B. Watson emphasized that:

Learning should be explained without any reference to mental processes.

The researcher most closely associated with the study of classical conditioning is:

Pavlov

Salivation to the food in the mouth is what?

UCR of ringing a bell-dog salivating based on bell ringing regularly associating with food in the mouth

Jerking your hand off a very hot stove is:

An unconditioned response

Pavlov's experiment: The taste of food triggered salivation in a dog. The food in the dog's mouth was the:

UCS

Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that had previously been associated with the presentation of a female quail. The female quail is a:

UCS

A dog's salivation at the sight of a food dish is a:

Conditioned response

Salivation to the sound of a tone is what in Pavlov's experiment on the salivary conditioning of dogs, what is the name for it?

CR

If the sound of an electric can opener causes a cat to salivate because the can opener has been associated with the presentation of food, the cat's salivation to the sound of the can opener is a:

Conditioned response

The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rta was associated with a loud noise. Fear of the white rat is a:

CR

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the CS is:

The sound of tone

The initial stage of classical conditioning during which a response to a neutral stimulus is established and gradually strengthened is called:

Acquisition

For the most rapid acquisition of a CR, the CS should be presented:

Shortly before the UCS

When a CS is not followed by a UCS the subsequent fading of a CR is called:

Extinction

The reappearance, after a time lapse, of an extinguished CR is called:

Spontaneous recovery

Spontaneous is evidence that a ___ is not completely eliminated during extinction?

CR

The _____ for a ____ to be evoked by stimuli similar to the CS is generalization.

Tendency for a CR

2 yr. old Phillip was recently clawed by the neighbor's cat. Phillips newly developed tendency to fear all small animals demonstrates the process of:

Generalization

Some of Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of one particular tone and not to other tones. This is the process of:

Discrimination

Operant conditioning:

The learning associations between one's own personal actions and resulting events is most relevant.

Ever since his mother began to give Julio gold stars for keeping his bed dry all night, Julio discontinued his habit of bedwetting. What change of behavior:

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning was most closely associated with who?

Skinner

Law of effect refers to the tendency to:

Repeat behaviors that are rewarded

Respondent behavior is to _______ as Operant behavior is to ________.

Pavlov and Skinner

Process of reinforcing successively closer approximations to a desired behavior is:

Shaping

In order to teach an animal to perform a complex sequence of behaviors, animal trainers are most likely to use a procedure known as:

Shaping

Teachers who effectively shape their students' study habits are most likely to:

Reinforce even minor improvements in students' study skills

Because Carol wold always pick up her newborn daughter when she began to cry, her daughter is now a real crybaby. In this case, picking up the infant served as a ____ for crying.

Positive reinforcement

More often Matt is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In case, the scolding serves as a _______ for Matt's temper tantrums.

Positive reinforcement

Escape from an aversive stimulus is a _______ reinforcer.

Negative

A negative reinforcer tends to ____- the behavior it follows:

Strengthen

Julie has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ________ reinforcer.

Negative

Innately satisfying stimuli that satisfy biological needs are called ______ reinforcers.

Primary

What is the best example of a primary reinforcer?

Cold root beer for the mowing the lawn on a hot day

Both the receipt of monetary rewards and the suspension of the monetary fines most clearly serve as ______ reinforcers.

Conditioned

As a hungry dog runs ever closer toward a bowl of food, the less likely it is to stope running until it reaches the food. That dog's running behavior is most strongly affected by ______ reinforcers.

Immediate

Intermittent reinforcement is associated with _____ acquisition and _______ extinction than continuous reinforcement.

Slower, slower

A trainer wants to train a chicked to peck a key to obtain food. If she wants the chicken to learn this trick quickly and also to be resistant to extinction, she should use _____ reinforcement until the response is mastered and then follow with a period of _____ reinforcement.

Continuous; partial

People paid on a piecework basis are renforced on a ___ schedule.

Fixed- ratio

Jennifer edits manuscripts for a publisher and is paid $5 for every three pages she edits. Jennifer is reinforced on a _____ schedule.

Fixed-Ratio

variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a:

Unpredictable number of responses have been made.

Which behaviors are typically reinforced on a variable-ratio schedule?

Inserting coins into a slot machine

Basketball players are typically reinforced with game points for their shots on a _______ schedule.

Variable-Ratio

What decreases the recurrence of the behavior it follows?

Punishment

The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ____ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ______.

Punishment, reinforcement

In explaining prosocial behavior, Skinner would ost likely have emphasized:

The beneficial consequences of prosocial behavior

Bandura's experiments indicate that ____ is important in the process of learning.

Moldeling

Euorpean Christians who risked their lives to rescue Jews from the Nazis and civil rights activists of the 1960s had parents who:

Modeled a strong moral or humanitarian concern.

The process of getting information into memory is called:

Encoding

The process of retrieval refers to:

Getting information out of memory storage

The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system is called ____ memory.

Long-term

Short-term memory is ______ permanent and _____ limited than long-term memory.

Less; more

After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In case, the telephone number was clearly stored in his ___ memory.

Short-term

The three-stage processing model suggests that information from long-term memory can be ____ into ____ memory.

retrieved; short-term

Hasher and Zacks observed that people recall the frequency of specific words in a list just as accurately whether or not they are forewarned of the recall task prior to seeing the list. This finds evidence for:

Automatic processing

When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the person's name by repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called:

Rehearsal

Which pioneering researcher made extensive use of nonsense syllables in the study of human memory?

Ebbinghaus

Ebbinghaus's retention curve best illustrates the value of:

Rehearsal

Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information often requires:

effortful processing

Tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than massed study is known as:

The spacing effect

Students often remember more information fro a course that spans an entire semester than from a course that is completed in an intensive three-week learning period. this best illustrates the importance of :

The spacing effect

On the telephone, Melvin rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Pilar to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Pilar attempts wrie down the items. Se is most likely to forget the items:

In the middle of the list

The serial position effect best illustrates the importance of :

Rehearsal

Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to be:

Serial position effect

Most people misrecall the sentence, " the angry rioter threw the rock at the window " as "the angry rioter threw the rock through the window." Importance of

Semantic encoding

The process by which information is encoded by its meaning is called:

Semantic encoding

Wei Dong asked to momorize a long list of words that included " ship, effort, professor and inquire." He later later recalled these words as "boat, work, teacher, and question." This for original words had been encoded

Semantically

Your ability to immediately recognize the voice over the phone as your mother's illustrates the value of:

Acoustic encoding

Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as____ is to ____.

meaning; imagery

We remember words that lend themselves to mental images better than we remember abstract low-imagery words.

Visual encoding

Memories aid that involve the use of vivid imagery or clever ways of organizing material called:

mnemonic devices

In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item as a t a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of:

The method of loci

The organization of information into meaningful units is:

Chunking

The use of acronyms to improve one's memory of unfamiliar material best illustrates the value of:

Chunking

The letters y m o m r e are presented Jill remembers them by rearranging them to spell the word memory. This provides:

Chunking

Dario Donatelli could recall more than 70 sequentially presented digits by using the technique of:

Chunking

By presenting research participants with the three rows of three of three letters for only a fraction of a second, Sperling demonstrated taht people have ____ memory.

iconic

Iconic memory refers to:

Photographic, or picture -image, memory that lasts for only about a second.

Sounds and words that are not immediately attended to can still be recalled a brief moment later because of our ____ memory.

Echoic

Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ___ is to ____.

Visual stimulation, auditory stimulation

Our immediate short-term memory for new materil is limited to roughly ____ units of information.

7

Short-term memory is slightly better:

For auditory information than for visual information

the human capacity for storing long-term memories is:

essentially unlimited

Conscious memory of factual information is called _______ memory.

Explicit

Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recolletion of how or when those fears were learned. This illustrates ______ memory.

implicit

Implicit memory is to explicit memory as ______ is to _____.

Skill memory; fact memory

Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn:

the names of the fifty U. S.

Although Mr. Yanagita has recently learned to play poker quite well, he cannot consciously remember ever having played poker. It is likeely that he has suffered damage to his:

Hippocampus

Professor Maslova ahas so many vivid memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty best illustrates:

The spacing effect

Why Ebbinghaus found the task of learning new lists of nonsense syllables increasingly difficault as his research career progressed?

Proactive interference

Retroactive interference refers to

Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material.

After studying biology all afternoon, Abba is having difficulty remembering details of the chemistry lecture e heard that morning. Abba's difficulty best illustrates:

retroactive interference

In order to reduce interference, between the time you study for a test and the time you take the test you should:

Sleep

When Loftus and Palmer asked observers of a filmed car accident how fast the vehicles were going when they "smashed" into each other the observers developed memories of the accident that:

Portrayed the event as more serious than it had actually been

An attorney's use of misleading questions may distort a court witnesss's recall of a previously observed crime.

The misinformation effect

Compared to false memories, true memories are more likely to:

Contain detailed information

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