increase in deoxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels with give skin a bluish cast
yellow to orange pigment, that tends to accumulate in the stratum corneum and in fatty tissue of the hypodermis. Its color is most obvious in palms and soles of feet, where stratum corneum is the thickest.
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries most of the oxygen of the blood
a bright red pigment, predominates in the arteries and capillaries. An increase in blood flow through the arteries to the capillaries causes a reddening of the skin, whereas the opposite change usually produces pallor. The skin of light-colored people is normally redder on the palms, soles, face, neck, and upper chest.
short, fine, inconspicuous and unpigmented
coarser, thicker more conspicuous and usually pigmented.
oil glands that usually open onto hair follicles
eccrine sweat glands
sweat glands that produce sweat and regulate body temperature
apocrine sweat glands
sweat glands that secrete products into hair follicles of the armpits and genital regions. stimulated by emotional stress
basal cell carcinoma
The most common type of skin cancer; the lesion is a pearly-colored papule with a translucent surface. This carcinoma is found on head and neck
squamous cell carcinoma
Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma; often characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.
A type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes; most lethal type;
History of previous melanoma
Age over 50
regular dermatologist absent
In darker people where would you look to if they are cyanotic?
palms and soles
ABCD's of moles for melanoma
Diameter >6 mm
Causes of central cyanosis
advanced lung disease, heart disease, and hemoglobinopathies
cyanosis in congestive heart failure is seen..
peripherally, reflecting decreased blood flow
liver disease or excessive hemolysis of red blood cells
What does the skin feel like with hypothyroidism?
roughness and cool
what does the skin feel like with hyperthyroidism?
warm and velvety
vesicles in unilateral dermatomal patterns are typical of
pressure sores result when
sustained compression obliterates arteriolar and capillary blood flow to the skin
When teaching self skin examination have the patient
examine everywhere...use mirror to check buttock, scalp and between toes.
slightly but uniformly pigmented macule or patch with a irregular border. 6 or more of these suggest neurofibromatosis
a fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin: looks like pt. is peeling
a condition caused by the destruction of melanin that results in the appearance of white patches on the skin, commonly the face, hands, legs, and genital areas
bluish color in toenails and toes
cyanosis due to impaired venous return in the leg. peripheral cyanosis
jaundice is seen easily and reliably in the
scleera and may also be visible in mucous membranes
The yellowish palm of carotenemia is compared with a normally pink palm, sometimes a subtle finding. Unlike jaundice, carotenemia does not affect the sclera, which remains white. The cause is a diet high in carrots and other yellow vegetables or fruits. Carotenemia is not harmful but indicates the need for assessing dietary intake.
Red hue, increased blood flow
what are the function of the skin?
temp. control, protection, synthesis of vitamin d, boundaries for body fluid
how long will it take a fingernail to grow back once removed?
approximately .1 mm daily
What are the two types of sweat gland?
apocrine and eccrine
What is the difference between macule and papules?
what is alopecia areata?
clearly demarcated round or oval patches of hair loss. no scaling or inflammation
name one endocrine condition associated with hair loss.