Chapter 6: Health and Wellness

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Healthy People 2010

goals for _ _ _ are (1) to increase quality and years of healthy life and (2) to eliminate health disparities

WHO

__ defines health as a "state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"

Health

is a state of being that people define in relation to their own values, personality, and lifestyle.

Pender

__ note that views of health have broadened to include mental, social, and spiritual well-being, as well as a focus on health at the family and community levels.

Life conditions

_ _ may include socioeconomic variables such as environment, diet, and lifestyle practices or choices, as well as many other physiological and psychological variables.

model

A __ is a theoretical way of understanding a concept or idea; represents different ways of approaching complex issues.

Health beliefs

_ _ are a person's ideas, convictions, and attitudes about health and illness.

Positive

___ health behaviors are activities related to maintaining, attaining, or regaining good health and preventing illness.

Negative

__ health behaviors include practices actually or potentially harmful to health, such as smoking, drug or alcohol abuse, poor diet, and refusal to take necessary medications.

health belief model

_ _ _ The 1st comp of this model involves the individual's perception of susceptibility to an illness. The 2nd component is the individual's perception of the seriousness of the illness.The 3rd comp - the likelihood that a person will take preventive action.

health promotion model

The _ _ _ (HPM) proposed by Pender was designed to be a "complementary counterpart to models of health protection". It defines health as a positive, dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease.

holistic health model

The _ _ _ of nursing attempts to create conditions that promote optimal health. In this model, nurses consider clients the ultimate experts regarding their own health and respect clients' subjective experience as relevant in maintaining health or assisting in healing.

reminiscence

use ___ in the geriatric population to help relieve anxiety for a client dealing with memory loss or for a cancer client dealing with the difficult side effects of chemotherapy.

Music

___ therapy in the operating room creates a soothing environment.

Relaxation

__ therapy may be useful in any setting to distract a client during a painful procedure, such as a dressing change.

Breathing exercises

_ _ are commonly taught to help clients deal with the pain associated with labor and delivery.

Stages of Health Behavior Change

_ _ _ _ _ Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance stage

Precontemplation

Stage of Health Behavior Change:
Not intending to make changes within the next 6 months.

Contemplation

Stage of Health Behavior Change:
Considering a change within the next 6 months.

Preparation

Stage of Health Behavior Change:
Making small changes in preparation for a change in the next month.

Action

Stage of Health Behavior Change:
Actively engaged in strategies to change behavior. This stage may last up to 6 months.

Maintenance stage

Stage of Health Behavior Change:
Sustained change over time. This stage begins 6 months after action has started and continues indefinitely.

Internal

__ variables include a person's developmental stage, intellectual background, perception of functioning, and emotional and spiritual factors.

External

__ variables influencing a person's health beliefs and practices include family practices, socioeconomic factors, and cultural background.

Health promotion

_ _ activities, such as routine exercise and good nutrition, help clients maintain or enhance their present levels of health.

Wellness

__ education teaches people how to care for themselves in a healthy way and includes topics such as physical awareness, stress management, and self-responsibility.

Illness prevention

_ _ activities such as immunization programs protect clients from actual or potential threats to health.

passive health promotion

The fluoridation of municipal drinking water and the fortification of homogenized milk with vitamin D are examples of _ _ _ strategies.

active health promotion

With _ _ _ strategy, individuals are motivated to adopt specific health programs. Weight reduction and smoking cessation programs require clients to be actively involved in measures to improve their present and future levels of wellness while decreasing the risk of disease.

Health promotion

_ _ is the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health. This definition suggests that health and illness are affected by choices made by individuals

Levels of Preventive Care

_ _ _ _ Primary prevention, Secondary prevention, Tertiary prevention

Primary prevention

_ _ is true prevention; it precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to clients considered physically and emotionally healthy; aimed at health promotion includes health education programs, immunizations, and physical and nutritional fitness activities.

Secondary prevention

_ _ this prevention focuses on individuals who are experiencing health problems or illnesses and who are at risk for developing complications or worsening conditions. Activities are directed at diagnosis and prompt intervention, thereby reducing severity and enabling the client to return to a normal level of health as early as possible

Tertiary prevention

_ _ this prevention occurs when a defect or disability is permanent and irreversible. It involves minimizing the effects of long-term disease or disability by interventions directed at preventing complications and deterioration;Activities are directed at rehabilitation rather than diagnosis and treatment.

risk factor

A _ _ is any situation, habit, social or environmental condition, physiological or psychological condition, developmental or intellectual condition, or spiritual or other variable that increases the vulnerability of an individual or group to an illness or accident.

45

many kinds of cancer pose a greater risk for persons over age __ than for younger persons.

mental overload

Job-related stressors may overtax a person's cognitive skills and decision-making ability, leading to __ or "burnout"

risk factors

Identifying _ _ is the first step in health promotion, wellness education, and illness prevention activities.

relapse

As individuals attempt a change in behavior, __ followed by recycling through the stages occurs frequently.

Illness

is a state in which a person's physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience.

disease

Illness is not synonymous with __. Although nurses must be familiar with different kinds of __s and their treatments, they are concerned more with illness, which may include __ but also includes the effects on functioning and well-being in all dimensions.

acute illness

Kind of illness that usually has a short duration and is severe. The symptoms appear abruptly, are intense, and often subside after a relatively short period.

chronic illness

kind of illness that persists, usually longer than 6 months, and can also affect functioning in any dimension.

normalization

It is important to understand that clients with chronic diseases and their families are faced with a process called __, in which they adapt to the disease.

illness behavior

People who are ill generally act in a way that medical sociologists call __ __. It involves how people monitor their bodies, define and interpret their symptoms, take remedial actions, and use the health care system

socioeconomic

The health care system is a __ system that clients must enter, interact within, and exit.

Body image

_ _ is the subjective concept of physical appearance

Withdrawal

is an adaptive coping mechanism that assists the client in making the adjustment.

Self-concept

is a mental self-image of strengths and weaknesses in all aspects of personality. __ depends in part on body image and roles but also includes other aspects of psychology and spirituality

Family dynamics

is the process by which the family functions, makes decisions, gives support to individual members, and copes with everyday changes and challenges.

transtheoretical model

The _ _ of change describes a series of changes that are progressed through for successful behavior change rather than simply assuming all clients are in an "action" stage.

Rosenstoch

_'s health belief model addresses the relationship between a person's belief and behaviors.

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