Health/Fitness Terms

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Acceleration

the rate at which velocity changes in a given amount of time

Aerobic

exercise refers to continuous activity that is of low intensity and lasting up to an hour or more

Agility

is the ability to move the body from one position and direction to another with speed and precision

Alcoholism

a condition associated with addiction to alcohol

Anaemia

a condition where there is a deficiency of red blood cells in the body

Anaerobic

exercise refers to activity that is of high intensity and short duration; that is, lasting up to about three minutes such as sprinting

Analgesics

are medications that relieve pain

Anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder accompanied by a progressive loss of appetite and consequent weight reduction beyond acceptable health levels

Balance

the ability to maintain equilibrium while either stationary or moving

Body composition

refers to the percentage of fat as opposed to lean body mass in a human being

Bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder where large quantities of food are ingested at one time (bingeing) and then purged from the body by self-induced vomiting

Carbohydrates

are compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

a life sustaining procedure that uses rescue breathing and chest compressions to stimulate blood flow and oxygen delivery when a person has stopped breathing or their heart has stopped beating

Cardiorespiratory endurance

refers to the ability of the working muscles to take up and use the oxygen that has been breathed in during exercise and transferred to muscle cells

Cardiovascular system

a network comprising the heart, arteries, blood and veins that distributes blood containing oxygen and nutrients and collects wastes

Coordination

the ability to harmonise the messages from the senses (such as sight, feel and sound) with parts of the body to produce movements that are smooth, skilful and well controlled

Eccentric

contraction occurs when the muscle lengthens while under tension

Exercise

planned, structured and repetitive bodily movement

FITT

a fitness principle standing for frequency, intensity, time and type

Flexibility

the range of motion about a joint or the ease of joint movement

Force

is the push or pull acting on a body

Synovial joint

one that allows maximum movement

General motion

a combination of angular and linear motion

Isometric contraction

develops when the muscle develop force, but the muscle length does not change

Isometric exercises

are muscular contractions where tension is created in the muscle, but its length remains the same

Mass

refers to the amount of matter in a body

Mental health

the capacity to express our emotions, adapt to a range of demands and to function productively

Minerals

are inorganic salts such as iron, calcium, sodium and phosphorus and are found throughout the body

Motion

the movement of a body from one position to another

Muscular endurance

the ability of the muscles to endure physical work for extended periods of time without undue fatigue

Muscular hypertrophy

relates to an increase in the size of the muscle

Muscular power

the ability to combine strength and speed in an explosive action

Muscular strength

the ability to exert force against a resistance in a single maximal effort

Nutrient

a chemical substance in food that nourishes the body in a specific way

Origin

the muscle's point of attachment to the more stationary bone

Osteoporosis

a condition where bones become brittle due to lack of mineral content

Physical activity

any movement that results in some expenditure of energy

Physical fitness

a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relate to the ability to perform physical activity

Physical health

the wellness of the body and the absence of chronic pain or discomfort

Power

the ability of muscle groups to contract at speed

Proteins

organic compounds that are formed from amino acids and are essential for building and repairing body tissue

Reaction time

the time taken to respond to a stimulus

Repetitions

are the number of times an exercise is repeated without rest

Responsibilities

actions that we must take and tasks we must do

Rights

entitlements that we all have

Set

the number of repetitions done in succession; for example, one set may equal 12 repetitions

Speed

equal to the distance covered divided by the time taken to cover the distance

Sphygmomanometer

is an instrument used to measure blood pressure

Spiritual health

relates to a sense of purpose and meaning in our life, and to feeling connected with others and society

Target heart rate

a predetermined pulse rate to be obtained during exercise and is expressed as a percentage of MHR

Triglycerides

represent the stored form of fat, which is found in adipose tissue - body fat

Vitamins

organic compounds that function to promote growth and maintain health

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