A catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen (O2) and organic molecules, producing ATP. This is the most efficient* catabolic pathway.
The catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
They break down organic molecules (glucose) for the production of ATP.
A coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain.
The reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration.
The production of ATP using energy (from redox reactions) of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.
The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. (6 carbon glucose, becomes 2 3 ring pyruvate). Not technically part of cellular respiration.
Adenosine Triphosphate. Releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. These two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate
A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intermediate in glycolysis.
Electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle used in Krebs cycle
The reduced from (carries electrons) of FAD, this is the other main electron carrier in cellular respiration (NADH is the most common).
Citric Acid Cycle
In all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
A large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and an inorganic phosphate- group together to produce ATP
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Most ATP synthesis in cells occurs by chemiosmosis.
Free energy of the electrochemical proton gradient that forms during electron transport. It is the H+ Gradient, pushes H+ back out of cell after it was actively transported in.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain.
The use of inorganic molecules other than oxygen to accept electrons at the "downhill" end of electron transport chains.
In absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, yields small amounts of ATP
Lactic Acid fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
An organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration. Such organisms cannot use oxygen.
An organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions.
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.